Aceh Indonesia


Forest Carbon
594 MtC
(using average carbon stock 186 tC/ha)
IPCC Measurement Methodology
Deforestation vs. Degradation

Reference Levels and Targets

Average Deforestation Rate
80 km²/yr
1996 - 2012
Deforestation Reduction Goal for State/Province and REDD Program
41 % Reduction
for the State/Province and for REDD+ program by 2020
Tons of CO₂e Avoided Target
by --
Needs Identified to Improve Baseline Definition

The Environmental Impact Management Agency (Bapedal) of Aceh conducted carbon stock assessment survey and analysis in 2009. Below is the summary of the reported outputs as an illustration of Aceh’s preparedness to conduct MRV in REDD+ projects. In general, the survey and analysis lead to the following conclusions:

- Carbon potential in primary forests stood at the average 307.77 ton C/ha, 246.34 ton C/ha in secondary forests (logged over areas), and 127.00 ton C/ha in plantation forests

- Carbon potential in plantations stood at the average 259.45 ton C/ha, 29.67 ton C/ha in mixed agricultural land (agroforestry), 103.67 ton C/ha in swamp forests and 20.00 ton C/ha in scrubland.

- The analysis of the 2009 Landsat images of seven land cover types showed 5,059,527.67 ha with standing carbon stock potential of 1,107,855,192.90 ton C or equivalent to 4,062,135,707.28 ton CO₂.

Baseline and emissions reduction targets are being addressed in the context of the national commitment and impact of the Indonesia-Norway LOI and moratorium.

Deforestation Dynamics Monitoring

Are current deforestation rates known?
Deforestation Rate Target
Deforestation Rates

The period 2003-2006 has been accepted by all stakeholders as the official data period for measuring deforestation. This data is compiled by the Ministry of Forestry. The data for the period 2000 -2005 was accepted as official data for the analytical process leading up to COP 13 in Bali.  The historical rates of deforestation in the province of Aceh were very low because the lowlands had been cleared for agriculture prior to the official data period and the uplands had been protected by poor access and also by the activities of the separatist fighting. The degree of deforestation in the period 2000-2005 reflects the loss of forest following the tsunami in 2004. This figure is reflected in the 2003-2006 data. The rates of deforestation have been dramatically reduced but a residual timber industry remains as a result of the business generated in the post tsunami recovery. The current spatial plan, which was accepted by the national government in 2010, reflects the Governor’s commitment to stop logging and provides little opportunity for a legal timber industry to continue.

Monitoring methodologies and accuracy

The forest cover monitoring for 2000-2005 was complicated by the different sets of available data. Landsat provides better resolution data but is less complete than MODIS data. The relationship between MODIS and LANDSAT estimates is linear and statistically robust with an r2 of 0.87 and a residual standard error 7.15%. The deviation between the estimated and actual forest cover based on BAPLAN field sampling is about 15% and this value has been adopted as the order of error to apply to forest area loss.

The 2003-2006 Forest Cover monitoring is based on 1:250 000 scale interpretation of Landsat 7 ETM+ overlays for 2002/2003 and 2005/2006. Data from the Province is analysed by Provincial offices (BKLH) of the Ministry, compilation and reporting on a province level is the responsibility of the national government. Data concerning deforestation and degradation in the Districts (Kabupaten) are available from the BKLH and the data are also used for spatial planning at the Province and Kabupaten Levels of government.

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Structural Needs:

Station capable of receiving high-resolution images

Geoproessing Unit

Methodological Needs:

Assessment of deforestation drivers and dynamics

Standardized methodology for deforestation monitoring

Forest Degradation Dynamics Monitoring

Are current degradation rates known?
Forest Degradation Rates

Logging and forest fires resulting in the degradation of primary forests to secondary forests.

To us, the government of Aceh, the most important thing is how to develop an MRV system that can be used for both VCS and CCBA methods. This becomes important as Aceh has had CCBA PDD and will develop VCS PDD.

Structural Needs:

Station capable of receiving high-resolution images

Geoproessing Unit

Methodological Needs:

Assessment of deforestation drivers and dynamics

Standardized methodology for deforestation monitoring

Forest Carbon Stocks Quantification

Are forest carbon stocks known?
Forest Classes
-- Forest Types Represented by
-- Plots
Above Ground Carbon Stock
594.00 Million ± -- tC/ha
Below Ground Carbon Stock
-- tC/ha

The biomass carbon stock of forests range between 50 and 300 tC/ha for dryland forest and between 75 and 275 tC/ha for peat swamp forest.  The lowest estimates are in forests on Java, while the highest occur in Kalimantan and Papua.  The carbon stored in Aceh forests would on average fall in the middle of the range given that the greatest extent of the forest is upland and on steep slopes. The resolution of the carbon maps is coarse as the data used to create it was based on regional and national datasets (e.g. climate, inventory data for calibration, and population density data at sub-national scales). This type of country-wide map provides estimates with uncertainty too high for robust analysis for the purposes of REDD, and this problem underlies the importance of an extended National Forest Inventory (NFI).

Support for implementation of IPCC Tier 2 carbon stock analysis. 

Capacity development within Government departments and Universities to design and implement IPCC measurement methodology, accuracy and ongoing quantification.


1. Hasil pengolahan SRAP REDD+ Aceh 2013.
2. Pengolahan SRAP REDD+ Aceh 2013.
Deforestation Dynamics Monitoring
3. SRAP REDD+ Aceh 2013.
Forest Degradation Dynamics Monitoring
4. SRAP REDD+ Aceh 2013.
5. SRAP REDD+ Aeh 2013.