Acre Brazil

Summary

Forest Carbon
2,546 MtC
(using average carbon stock 177 tC/ha)
IPCC Measurement Methodology
Deforestation vs. Degradation
Sources:[1]

Reference Levels and Targets

Average Deforestation Rate
432 km²/yr
1996 - 2012
Deforestation Reduction Goal for State/Province and REDD Program
82 % Reduction[2]
for the State/Province and for REDD+ program by 2020
Tons of CO₂e Avoided Target
164 MtCO₂e[2]
by 2020
Needs Identified to Improve Baseline Definition

The baseline and emissions reduction targets will be refined as part of an analysis carried out by the Getulio Vargas Foundation (FGV).

Deforestation Dynamics Monitoring

Are current deforestation rates known?
Yes[3]
Deforestation Rate Target
108 km²/yr[4]
Deforestation Rates
Sources:[3][5][6]

The majority of deforestation in Acre occurs along primary and secondary roads as well as rivers. The main driver of deforestation in Acre is cattle ranching (occupying 70% of the total area deforested in 1989 and increasing to 81% in 2004). Factors such as land speculation, lack of zoning and formal designation of public lands, profitability of cattle ranching, and subsidized loans for ranching have created incentives for deforestation throughout the Amazon, including Acre. Historically, the main agents of deforestation agents were owners of mid-size and large farms and ranches, but in recent years smallholder farmers have contributed significantly to deforestation in Acre. The pavement of the BR-317 (completed in 2007) and BR-364 (scheduled completion in 2011) highways now connect the southwestern Amazon (including Acre) to Peruvian Pacific coast harbors and is likely to lead to increased deforestation. The risk of deforestation is likely to be most intense along the BR-364 from Sena Madureira to Cruzeiro do Sul.

In addition to using PRODES and DETER, Acre has developed a Central Geoprocessing and Remote Sensing Unit (“UCEGEO”) which detects deforestation on areas as small as .54 acres.  Acre also has been working with the NGO IPAM to refine the Carbon Calculator(CCal) tool which improves forest carbon estimates in the state.

The most critical need is for building monitoring capacity for deforestation on small properties (<100 ha), which represent 90% of all private landholdings in the state. The government of Acre intends to acquire a high resolution FORMOSAT satellite image (4 m2 resolution) receiver station to facilitate deforestation monitoring on smallholder properties and in other critical or priority areas.

Forest Degradation Dynamics Monitoring

Are current degradation rates known?
Partially[7]
Forest Degradation Rates

Forest degradation in the state of Acre is caused primarily by forest fires, as well as by logging. Forest fires result from the escape of management fires (set to clear pastures and/or to remove crop residues) into adjacent forests. During times of extreme droughts (such as those that occurred in 2005 and 2010), forests are more vulnerable and the extent and degree of degradation tends to be greater.

Currently, forest degradation is assessed by INPE's DEGRAD, which employs Landsat and CBERS images. The system assesses 3 levels of degradation: low, medium, and high.  Although 86% of the degradation/deforestation detected by the method was confirmed, false negatives (non-detection) is common in DEGRAD at low and medium degradation levels.

Capacity building for forest degradation monitoring methodologies using LIDAR optical remote sensing technology is needed.

Forest Carbon Stocks Quantification

Are forest carbon stocks known?
Yes[12]
Forest Classes
18 Forest Types Represented by
44 Plots
Above Ground Carbon Stock
151.2 ± 45 tC/ha
Below Ground Carbon Stock
25.8 ± 9 tC/ha

Reported carbon stocks are estimated using 2 methods: (1) a simple methodology based on vegetation mapping and field sampling, and (2) a more technically demanding method based on remote sensing. In the former, above-ground biomass stocks are estimated by applying appropriate allometric equations (Brown, 1997) derived from measurements of the above-ground biomass of trees >10 cm DBH in 44 plots (ranging from 1 to 10 ha each) throughout the state. The plots were geographically located so as to obtain samples for all 18 extant forest types in Acre. Only half of the forest types had a sufficient number of sample plots to calculate biomass; biomass for the other forest types was estimated by extrapolation. Below-ground biomass was estimated using a dimensional factor (Malhi et al, 2009) of 0.21 in relation to above-ground biomass.

Reported carbon stocks are estimated using 2 methods: (1) a simple methodology based on vegetation mapping and field sampling, and (2) a more technically demanding method based on remote sensing. In the former, above-ground biomass stocks are estimated by applying appropriate allometric equations (Brown, 1997) derived from measurements of the above-ground biomass of trees >10 cm DBH in 44 plots (ranging from 1 to 10 ha each) throughout the state. The plots were geographically located so as to obtain samples for all 18 extant forest types in Acre. Only half of the forest types had a sufficient number of sample plots to calculate biomass; biomass for the other forest types was estimated by extrapolation. Below-ground biomass was estimated using a dimensional factor (Malhi et al, 2009) of 0.21 in relation to above-ground biomass.

Sources

Summary
1. INPE, 2013. PRODES.
Reference Levels and Targets
2. ACRE, 2009. Plano de Prevenção e Controle do Desmatamento e Queimadas do Estado do Acre - PPCD/AC.
Deforestation Dynamics Monitoring
3. INPE, 2013. PRODES.
4. ACRE, 2009. Plano de Prevenção e Controle do Desmatamento e Queimadas do Estado do Acre - PPCD/AC.
5. INPE, 2013. PRODES.
6. Prodes.
Forest Degradation Dynamics Monitoring
7. INPE, 2013. Monitoramento da Degradação Florestal na Amazônia Brasileira - DEGRAD.
8. INPE, 2013. Monitoramento da Degradação Florestal da Amazônia Brasileira - DEGRAD.
9. INPE, 2013. Monitoramento da Degradação Florestal na Amazônia Brasileira - DEGRAD.
10. INPE, 2013. Monitoramento da Degradação Florestal da Amazônia Brasileira - DEGRAD.
11. DEGRAD.
Forest Carbon Stocks Quantification
12. Cleber I. Salimon, Francis E. Putz, L. Menezes-Filho, Anthony Anderson, Marcos Silveira, I. Foster Brown, L.C. Oliveira, Estimating state-wide biomass carbon stocks for a REDD plan in Acre, Brazil, Forest Ecology and Management, Volume 262, Issue 3, 1 August 2011, Pages 555-560, ISSN 0378-1127, 10.1016/j.foreco.2011.04.025.