Amapá Brazil

Summary

Forest Carbon
3,045 MtC
(using average carbon stock 279 tC/ha)
IPCC Measurement Methodology
Deforestation vs. Degradation
Sources:[1][2][3]

Reference Levels and Targets

Average Deforestation Rate
36 km²/yr
1996 - 2012
Deforestation Reduction Goal for State/Province and REDD Program
80 % Reduction[4]
for the State/Province and for REDD+ program by 2020
Tons of CO₂e Avoided Target
--
by 2020
Needs Identified to Improve Baseline Definition

- Baseline and targets need to be defined[5]

Deforestation Dynamics Monitoring

Are current deforestation rates known?
Yes
Deforestation Rate Target
--
Deforestation Rates
Sources:[6][7][8]

No official study on the drivers and causes of deforestation for the State of Amapá exists, but information on deforestation trends is available both from state and federal monitoring programs. An Amapá State Secretariat of Environment (SEMA) report on deforestation over the 2005-2006 period reveals that 130 km² were deforested in the 2005-2006 period, with 89% of that deforestation occurring within 10 km of roads, in accordance with patterns observed elsewhere in the Amazon. The report also concludes that 84% of individual patches cleared in this period are relatively small, ranging from 0 to 10 ha. These small patches represented 31% of total deforestation, whereas patches ranging from 10 to 50 ha accounted for 33% of total deforestation (but only 14% of all patches cleared). One quarter of total deforestation was caused by clearing of only 15 large (100-500 ha) patches.  

Considering that 81% of the deforestation in 2005-2006 occured in the savannahs (Cerrado) and in the Terra Firme Highland Forests combined and that 37% of this deforestation occurred in the cerrado, it is possible to assume that silviculture (eucalyptus) has been growing in the cerrado areas and may be responsible for deforestation patches over 100 ha. Sixty-three percent of deforestation occurred in Dense Highland Forests. Deforestation encompasses settlement projects and other small households in protected areas dedicated to subsistence agriculture. Eighteen percent of total deforestation took place within 31 settlement projects.

Meanwhile, PRODES detected an increase in annual deforestation from 2007 (7 km²) to 2008 (100 km²). Although this difference falls within the analysis’ margin of error (as described in the monitoring methodology), long-term monitoring by PRODES shows increasing annual deforestation rates before and after this period. 

In addition to PRODES and DETER, Amapa has worked with the civil society organization IPAM to refine the Carbon Calculator (CCal) tool which improves forest carbon estimates in the state.  Amapa faces particular difficulties in montioring forests due to constant cloud cover and has begun to develop radar data sets in collaboration with the Amazônia SAR project (Amazon Fund) to  improve forest monitoring capacities.

Due to Amapá’s geographic location (on the equator and in the intertropical convergence zone), heavy cloud cover is abundant year around, and is especially persistent during the rainy season (November to June). As a result, obtaining cloud-free satellite image mosaics for annual monitoring is difficult, if not impossible, in most years. Consequently, since beginning to monitor Amazon deforestation in 1988, INPE has not estimated deforestation or has estimated zero deforestation for Amapa in 6 years (1993, 1994, 1996, 1999, 2000, 2002). For other years, deforestation estimates may have low accuracy due to cloud cover.

SEMA is developing a methodology for monitoring deforestation that uses Landsat5-TM and CBERS imagery. Due to the difficulty of obtaining sufficient cloud-free images, estimates are being generated over two-year periods, starting with the period 2001-2002. Estimates for 3 periods (2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2005-2006) have been completed; the 2007-2008 analysis is still in progress.

A comparison of PRODES and SEMA estimates for 2009 and 2006, respectively (the most recent years for which figures from each source are available), shows a 56% higher estimate of new deforestation by SEMA, despite the 3-year gap in analysis periods, revealing a great level of uncertainty in deforestation estimates for Amapá.

The Government of Amapá is hiring 11 specialists in geoprocessing (3 for IMAP and 8 for SEMA) and is negotiating with the federal government to obtain the funds necessary to implement a geoprocessing laboratory. The goals of the lab will be to: (1) Monitor deforestation; (2) Establish a geodesic grid and a reliable cartographic base for the state; (3) Carry out scenarios modeling to support planning and analysis.

- More information on the drivers and dynamics of deforestation

- Technological improvement of deforestation monitoring and annual estimates, with support for senior consultants and capacity building for SEMA staff

Forest Degradation Dynamics Monitoring

Are current degradation rates known?
Yes
Forest Degradation Rates
Sources:[9][10][11]

Logging may be the most important cause (No official study of the drivers of deforestation has been carried out).

DEGRAD method from INPE:

LANDSAT and CBERS images (minimum scale 6.25 hectares) are enhanced for contrast

Images classified in fairly arbitrary way described above

86% of degradation/deforestation detected was confirmed, but false negatives (nondetection)

is common at low and medium degradation

Levels of degradation assessed:

low degradation: predominance of green pixels with some small purple pixels found in low density and frequency

medium degradation: dominance of green pixels with slightly larger purple pixels in a mid-level density and frequency

high degradation: dominance of purple pixels, or smooth green ones, with spots of forest

- More information on the drivers and dynamics of degradation

- Technological improvement of degradation monitoring and annual estimates, with support for senior consultants and capacity building for SEMA staff

Forest Carbon Stocks Quantification

Are forest carbon stocks known?
Yes
Forest Classes
1[12] Forest Types Represented by
587[12] Plots
Above Ground Carbon Stock
182.1 ± 6 tC/ha
Below Ground Carbon Stock
96.4 ± 3 tC/ha

The Amapá State Forest Institute (IEF) has developed the Amapá Carbon Project (in partnership with the National Research Institute for the Amazon—INPA) to estimate carbon stocks in State Forest module II. The methodology in the field consisted of collection of above and below ground tree components (leaves, branches, trunks, roots) of all individuals within 4 plots of 100 m2 (10x10m) each. Laboratory analysis of these samples yielded organic carbon content to derive allometric equations for estimating above and below-ground carbon content. The data from the 4 plots were extrapolated to the State Forest areas and the average carbon stock is being used to develop a PDD for State Forest module IV.

- Improve the carbon stock quantification methodology for the whole state

Sources

Summary
1. SEMA/Relatórios Desmatamentos.
2. INPE.
3. INPE.
Reference Levels and Targets
4. Rio Branco Declaration.
5. GCF - Força Tarefa de Governadores para o Clima e Florestas Proposta de alocação das reduções de emissões “U-REDD” nos estados brasileiros membros do GCF. 2ª Edição. / organizado por Mariano C. Cenamo; Pedro G. Soares; Junia Karst. - Manaus: IDESAM, 2014.
Deforestation Dynamics Monitoring
6. Prodes / INPE.
7. Prodes / INPE.
8. Prodes.
Forest Degradation Dynamics Monitoring
9. INPE. Mapeamento da Degradação Florestal na Amazônia Brasileira.
10. INPE.
11. DEGRAD.
Forest Carbon Stocks Quantification
12. IEF, 2012. Projeto Carbono Amapá e Inventário Florestal FLOTA/AP.