Central Kalimantan Indonesia

Summary

Forest Carbon
913 MtC
(using average carbon stock 104 tC/ha)
IPCC Measurement Methodology
Deforestation vs. Degradation
Sources:[1]

Reference Levels and Targets

Average Deforestation Rate
765 km²/yr
1996 - 2012
Deforestation Reduction Goal for State/Province and REDD Program
41 % Reduction
for the State/Province and for REDD+ program by 2020
Tons of CO₂e Avoided Target
--
by --
Needs Identified to Improve Baseline Definition

Deforestation Reduction Goals for the State and for REDD program by 2020.

Deforestation Dynamics Monitoring

Are current deforestation rates known?
Partially
Deforestation Rate Target
--
Deforestation Rates
Sources:[2][3]

The deforestation rate in Indonesia reaches 1.17 million hectares annually with 64.8% of deforestation occurring in forest areas and 35.2% in non-forest areas (APL).

The rate in the province stands at 63.1 thousand hectares annually, with nearly all deforestation occurring in forest areas (99.8% vs. 0.2% in non-forest areas). ) The deforestation has been increasing the emission of CO₂ and NH4, two of the main greenhouse gases) . (http://borneonews.co.id/news/kotawaringin-barat/12-kobar/11662-laju-deforestasi-di-kalteng-631-hektare-per-tahun.html)

Monitoring methodologies and accuracy

On 5 January 2012, a new regulation was issued concerning the island-wide spatial plan, i.e. President’s Decree No. 3 of 2012 on Kalimantan Island’s Spatial Plan. It stipulates that the minimum size of conservation areas and vegetated protected areas to be protected is 45% of the island’s total area. It also supports rehabilitation of degraded forests, including ex-mining areas, and aims at making the island the world’s lung.

The regulation, however, abolishes Limited Production Forests in State’s Forest, entailing a more serious threat of deforestation to the province, as suggested by Forest Watch Indonesia (FWI) and Telapak after analyzing Appendix 2 of the Regulation. These forest monitoring NGOs found “a loss of 3.32 million hectares of forest”, which had previously been categorized as Limited Production Forest. Although the area is as not wholly forested, most of it is natural forest.

In its Portrait of Indonesia’s Forests report, released in July 2011, FWI reported that Central Kalimantan had the highest deforestation rate in Indonesia. The province had at least lost about 2 million hectares of forest during 2000 through 2009. The deforestation occurred in almost all forest ecosystem types, including 490 thousand hectares of forest in peatland. (http://fwi.or.id/?p=335)

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The Executive Director of FWI, Hapsoro, said, ”We reported massive deforestation in Central Kalimantan. Despite this, several months later, the government exacerbated the condition by issuing the President’s Decree on Kalimantan Island’s Spatial Plan.”

In the meantime, Telapak also issued a report entitled “Menjambret REDD” (literally meaning “forcibly grabbing REDD”) in June 2011. The report presents evidence of the stripping of peat forests in areas under moratorium in Central Kalimantan by an oil palm company PT Menteng Jaya Sawit.

“The commitment of the Indonesian government to maintaining forests is an empty promise with the issuance of the President’s Decree on Kalimantan’s Spatial Plan. The government should have responded to the bad practice of PT Menteng in Central Kalimantan seriously; on contrary, it even provided room for massive deforestation,” said Abu Meridian, Telapak’s Forest Campaigner.

As active non-government organizations monitoring forest management practices in Indonesia, FWI and Telapak worried about the potential increase in deforestation in Central Kalimantan. Both organizations have asked the government to review the Decree as it is very likely that the Decree will threaten the remaining forests in the province. (http://fwi.or.id/?p=335)

Forest Degradation Dynamics Monitoring

Are current degradation rates known?
--
Forest Degradation Rates
Sources:[5]

The latest Synchronization of Forest Land Use by Consensus (TGHK) and Provincial Spatial Plan (RTRWP) or padu serasi (literally meaning ‘integration-harmonization”) allocated 82.16% for forest area and 17.84 for non-forest area (areas for other uses – APL).

Forests in Central Kalimantan are currently deforested and degraded at a rate of 145,000 ha/year, creating ±4,778,000 ha of critical land, as a result of:

Land conversion

Forest and land fires

Illegal Logging/Mining

Ex-Mega Rice Project

Forest degradation continues in Central Kalimantan Province, caused by both illegal logging and illegal mining. Along the Palangkaraya - Buntok road, scrubland is a common view.

Wahana Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia (Friends of the Earth Indonesia) Central Kalimantan once noted and reported that the annual forest destruction in the province stood at 255,918 hectares. The Kahayan River Basin Management Body notes that out of the 4.7 million hectares of critical land in its management area, only 60,000-70,000 hectares have been able to be reforested since 2004.

Nationally, the Environment Minister Rachmat Witoelar once mentioned that forest and land degradation in Indonesia reached 59.2 million hectares (2006), at an annual rate of 1.19 million hectares. (http://www.lestari-hutanku.com/)

The presence of the UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon in Palangkaraya, Central Kalimantan, was, expectedly, not for a mere ceremonial purpose. Ban Ki-moon was urged to take concrete actions, by calling UN members for not using products produced from environmentally-detrimental practices.

Nordin, the Executive Director of Save Our Borneo, said in Palangkaraya on Monday (14/11/2011) that Ban Ki-moon had to thoroughly explore the situations in Central Kalimantan as a pilot province for REDD+ programs. The programs are considered insufficient enough to save the province’s forests. (http://health.kompas.com/read/2011/11/15/00024061/www.kompas.com)

Forest Carbon Stocks Quantification

Are forest carbon stocks known?
Partially[6]
Forest Classes
-- Forest Types Represented by
-- Plots
Above Ground Carbon Stock
179.0 ± 1.82 Billion tC/ha
Below Ground Carbon Stock
-- tC/ha

Central Kalimantan sees REDD+ as an encouraging opportunity to continuously improve the performance of local development (act locally) which can contribute to global communities and which can gain global appreciation (think globally) and which can foster green business and green industries towards green economy. Real examples of such efforts have been outlined above. For the purpose of controlling, monitoring and evaluation, the provincial government has been working with the UKP4 (President’s Delivery Unit for Development Monitoring and Oversight). The Governor sent a letter to the Head of the UPK4 (Letter No.050/746/VI/Bapp. Dated 22 May 2010) to initiate a cooperation, sent some staff and heads of strategic SKPD (regional work units) on 26 May 2010 to the UKP4 Office for learning, and in 2011 pioneered the creation of a regional UKP4-like institution in Central Kalimantan .

An assessment on the National REDD+ Strategies as well as a study on the Low Carbon Growth Strategies (collaborative work of DNPI and McKinsey) show that the province’s confidence may significantly support the emission reduction by 26% or even 41% of the business-as-usual level in 2020, to which the Indonesia government is committed. Simple calculations show that two third (2/3) of the obligation to reduce carbon emission from forests and peatland can be potentially implemented in Central Kalimantan.

Central Kalimantan calculates that the MRV system for REDD+ Indonesia can be developed upon the Tier 2 Plus (Tier 2+). Nationally, regulations, registry, aggregation and evaluation are developed – based on the province’s MRV – using a nested approach (wall to wall province wide mapping in accordance with IPCC’s Guideline Tier 2), furnished with Tier 3-based data from various REDD+ project sites. In Central Kalimantan, Enhanced Tier 2+ can be done, referring to MRV (including regular monev) that covers not only forest carbon and carbon emission, but also Social and Environmental Standards (including community’s livelihood), such as the one developed by CCBA (Climate, Community & Biodiversity Alliance). This can be facilitated through a participatory land use planning and mapping approach, whose results can be integrated into the MRV system and are represented spatially, numerically and visually using GIS, Remote Sensing and Google Earth approaches for public transparency and accountability.

The southern areas of the province contain peatland encompassing 3,010,640 ha, comprising 1,496,875 ha of 0-2 meter deep peat and 1,513, 765 ha of ?2 meter deep peat. The total carbon contained is estimated to stand at 6.35 giga tons.

Confidence about the things outlined above is supported by the following data and information, as follows:

The availability of raw and processed data on Land System, Land Use and Land Use Change, Land Cover and Land Cover Change from 2000 through 2009, which were the product of cooperations with various parties such as the Ministry of Forestry, the Ministry of Environment, donors, NGOs, and the product of intercountry collaborative projects. The data will improve the quality of REL/RL or baseline calculation, rather than mere Tier 2 Standards.

The availability of REL/RL or baseline calculation reference from reliable sources as cited in the National REDD+ Strategies document.

Established cooperations between Palangka Raya University-the provincial government and universities, national and international institutions in the collection of data on peat carbon flux, peat fire emission, peat oxidization, forest fires, etc.

The ongoing process to build a cooperation with JICA, JAXA, Nihon and Hokkaido University to pilot Japanese MRV (J Ver) in Central Kalimantan.

The availability of Tier 3-compliant data for REDD+ project-based locations as well as 96 permanent plots of National Forest Inventory, KHDTK (forest areas for special purposes) and wanariset (agroresearch) in Central Kalimantan.

The ongoing development of Japan-granted high speed broadband database network infrastructure connecting universities, research institutions and centers, government agencies and project sites.

Implementation of several workshops such as those on OSIRIS, GIS and Remote Sensing and MRV (please refer to the Governance Aspects), creation of 31 forest management units (KPH) and initiation of community’s forests such as HKm (community forests) and HTR (community plantation forests) (please refer to the Social Economic Aspects)

Central Kalimantan, in cooperation with The Clinton Foundation, serves as the pilot location for REDD+ Social and Environmental Standards developed by CCBA (Climate, Community & Biodiversity Alliance).

Creation of REDD Working Groups at district level and continuous engagement of districts in various seminars and workshops on REDD+

Near completion of the synchronization of Forest Land Use by Consensus (TGHK) and Provincial Spatial Plan (RTRWP) or padu serasi, which is done in stages, and involves various stakeholders. The work is implemented by the Integrated Team (as mandated by Law 41/1999) and the output will serve as the sole reference for integrated spatial data.

The availability of fund for the 2011 Technical Assistance to enhance evaluation and monitoring capacity; the work is particularly related to the thought to align the existing institutions with the monev system in the province, the UKP4’s monev pattern and creation of national level REDD+ institutions

In the future, cooperations and action plans to be pioneered and developed will include:

Lidar (Laser Altimetry) mapping of all the ex-Mega Rice Project area, which can help with proximate analyses of peat carbon and biomass carbon, and with the cross-checking of the accuracy with other mapping.

Establishing the Center for Integrated Spatial Data and Information as the reference for all spatial-related development sectors. The center will contain a master map of land use licensing control.

Developing protocols and standardizing MRV database development (between REDD developers, regional governments and research institutions, including universities), as well as utilizing high speed broadband network.

Building the capacity of to-be-established regional REDD+ institutions through outsourcing and technology transfer in cooperation with donors or international development cooperation institutions.

Strengthening cooperation plans with Palangka Raya University, Monash, JICA, European Commission, etc.; establishing a center for GIS and remote sensing, a research center, and conducting field training on PHL (Sustainable Forest Management), Agroforestry and Inventory related to the enabling aspects and REDD+ MRV.

Collaboratively building a ground geodetic DGPS station for spatial data accuracy so that all references of mapping and spatial data – from field mapping to provincial spatial plan – can be overlaid and processed precisely (spatial accuracy of sampling plot, Tier 3 and Tier 1 data can be maintained)

Sources

Summary
1. Draft Dokumen REL-Kalteng tahun 2009.
Deforestation Dynamics Monitoring
2. Central Kalimantan Forestry Data and Information. Department of Forestry, Forestry Planning Agency, 2002.
3. Draft Dokumen REL-Kalteng Hal IV-5, data tahun 2009.
Forest Degradation Dynamics Monitoring
4. Draf Dokumen REL-Kalteng.
5. Draft Dokumen REL-Kalteng Hal IV-6, data tahun 2009.
Forest Carbon Stocks Quantification
6. Draft Dokumen REL-Kalteng tahun 2009.