Pará Brazil

Summary

Forest Carbon
20,872 MtC
(using average carbon stock 208 tC/ha)
IPCC Measurement Methodology
Deforestation vs. Degradation
Sources:[1]

Reference Levels and Targets

Average Deforestation Rate
4,919 km²/yr
1996 - 2012
Deforestation Reduction Goal for State/Province and REDD Program
66 % Reduction[2]
for the State/Province and for REDD+ program by 2020
Tons of CO₂e Avoided Target
--
by 2020
Needs Identified to Improve Baseline Definition

To be determined

Deforestation Dynamics Monitoring

Are current deforestation rates known?
Partially
Deforestation Rate Target
1,251 km²/yr[3]
Deforestation Rates
Sources:[4][5][6]

The major drivers of deforestation are cattle ranching, large-scale agriculture, and logging; relatively more minor drivers include mining, urban areas, and infrastructure (e.g., dams). Large cattle ranches account for 60% of all deforestation, whereas smallholder lands account for another 30%. Four percent of deforested area is associated with logging and 3% only is directly associated with professional and high productivity agriculture.

Pará and Mato Grosso have the highest deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon, accounting for 68% of total deforestation (Mato Grosso, 35%; Pará, 33%). Both states have drastically reduced deforestation in the last 6 years. In Pará, deforestation has consistently decreased since its highest point in 2005 (8870 km²), declining by more than 50% to 4281 km² in 2009. The reduction is attributed to an increase in the enforcement and control measures.

Three methodologies are used to estimate deforestation in Pará: PRODES and DETER from INPE (National Space Agency) and SAD from IMAZON.

INPE: PRODES and DETER

LANDSAT satellite images (30 m) are chosen for analysis based on 1) level of cloud cover and 2) proximity to date of reference (August 1);

The images are geo-referenced using SPRING (Sistema de Processamento de Informacoes Geo-referenciadas);

Linear spectral mixing model (MLME) is used to extract soil, vegetation, and shade fractions from the images;

Regions are identified based on similarity and minimum size, and analyzed by an algorithm;

The daily deforestation rate is calculated first and yearly rates are extrapolated from these, taking into account yearly climate differences that may impact detection of deforestation.

IMAZON: SAD (used as a tool to monitor the Green Municipalities Program)

Daily MODIS (250 m) images are filtered for cloud cover and spectral resolution bands are fused to increase the detail of images;

NPV (non-photosynthetic components) are estimated and NDFI (normalized difference fraction index) is calculated: values range from -1 (soil) to 1 (forest);

Deforestation is detected by comparing two consecutive monthly NDFIs: a change of -200 to -50 reflects probable deforestation;

The resolution of SAD (250 m) is larger than for the satellites used by INPE (CBERS (20 m) and LANDSAT (30 m)), but in a comparison, 80-90% of deforestation reported by SAD was confirmed;

SEMA is investing in improving the GEOTEC department. Currently, the focus is on improving performance in monitoring (of illegal activities) and licensing. However, in the future, GEOTEC may have an important role in a state REDD+ Program. SEMA intends to develop the best geoprocessing laboratory in Brazil’s Northern Region, creating a geodesic grid and acquiring SPOT satellite imagery for the whole state as well as radar images for areas constantly covered by clouds (above the 4th parallel), aiming to create a cartographic base on a scale of 1:25,000.

Restructure GEOTEC to cope with the needs of a future REDD+ Program.

Forest Degradation Dynamics Monitoring

Are current degradation rates known?
Yes
Forest Degradation Rates
Sources:[7][8]

Logging and forest fires

DEGRAD method from INPE:

LANDSAT and CBERS images (minimum scale 6.25 ha) are enhanced for contrast;

Images classified in fairly arbitrary way described above;

86% of degradation/deforestation detected was confirmed, but false negatives (non-detection) are common for low and medium levels of degradation

Levels of degradation assessed:

Low degradation: predominance of green pixels with some small purple pixels found in low density and frequency

Medium degradation: dominance of green pixels with slightly larger purple pixels in a mid-level density and frequency

High degradation: dominance of purple pixels, or smooth green ones, with spots of forest

SAD method from IMAZON:

NDFI is calculated and compared monthly, as described above in deforestation monitoring methodology;

A change of between -20 and -49 indicates probable degradation;

Levels of degradation: only one level of degradation;

Characterization of degradation dynamics (direct and underlying causes and drivers of forest degradation):

Direct: selective logging, small-scale timber harvest and agriculture, population growth/relocation (Manaus)

Indirect: displacement of activities and people from other parts of Amazonia, roads

Necessidades identificadas de monitoramento da degradação / Needs identified for degradation monitoring Needs identified for degradation monitoring

Once the basic structure of the state REDD Program is defined, GEOTEC will have to be restructured to acquire the capacity to develop and implement the degradation monitoring protocol.

Content Currently Unavailable

Forest Carbon Stocks Quantification

Are forest carbon stocks known?
Partially
Forest Classes
-- Forest Types Represented by
-- Plots
Above Ground Carbon Stock
152.7 ± -- tC/ha
Below Ground Carbon Stock
55.7 ± -- tC/ha

There is no official study of or estimates for carbon stocks. There are estimates in the literature and for a few REDD+ projects in the State, including Calha Norte coordinated by IMAZON and Transamazonica coordinated by IPAM. The only data made available (although not yet formally published) is from IMAZON for 3 State Forests in the Calha Norte region. Project data use the RADAM database to produce a biomass map and an uncertainty map. Estimates of carbon density for the project average 163 tC/ha for 3 State Forests (range: 161 to 193 tC/ha).

TNC and SEMA are seeking funding to carry out the jointly-developed Carbon Accounting Program, whose goal is to establish accurate estimates of carbon stocks in the state. This project will estimate carbon stocks for São Felix do Xingu Project (proposed by TNC) and also help the Government to develop a state-wide carbon accounting system.

Not identified yet

Sources

Summary
1. PRODES/INPE, 2011.
Reference Levels and Targets
2. State Decree 1697/2009 (PPCAD/PA).
Deforestation Dynamics Monitoring
3. State Decree 1,697/2009 (PPCAD/PA).
4. PRODES/INPE, 2013.
5. PRODES/INPE,2013.
6. Prodes.
Forest Degradation Dynamics Monitoring
7. INPE, DEGRAD Mapeamento da degradação florestal na Amazônia Brasileira, accessed on 21 June 2013.
8. DEGRAD.