Chiapas Mexico

Strategies and Policies

Climate Change Action Program (PACCCH) - Chiapas has completed the first phase and entered the second phase of its PACCCH, which began in 2009.  The Program includes goals of engaging researchers to increase scientific knowledge on climate change, complete state-level greenhouse gas inventories, analyze deforestation and forest degradation in the state, and analyze future climate scenarios.  The program is supported by Chiapas' Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Law (Decree 190/2013).

State REDD+ strategy (EEREDD+) - Chiapas has developed a draft EEREDD+ which will be used as a basis for consultation in priority regions (Selva Lacandona, Frailescana, Costa-Istmo and Mezcalapa). Additionally, Chiapas is considered an early REDD+ action (ATREDD+) and is part of the federal government Emission Reduction Initiative (IRE) with the FCPF

FCPF Carbon Fund Investment Program – Chiapas has developed an investment program to reduce deforestation through Mexico’s Emissions Reduction Initiative implemented under the framework of the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility.The Emissions Reduction Initiative is based on four pillars: enhancing cross-sectoral coordination, improving land governance, actions to address site-specific drivers of deforestation, and the development of policies and programs.

The State Development Plan (Plan Estatal de Desarrollo - PED) -  proposes a basic vision for the development of the Strategy in three axes and seven public policies. 

Laws and Regulations

Decree 190 24/5/2013 Climate Change Mitigation and Adaption - Originally published in 2010, but was replaced by Decree 190/2013. It provides a basis for actions to reduce deforestation in the state and promotes the Climate Change Action Program, which lays out the steps that the state government should take in order to construct a REDD+ mechanism in more detail, and states that the Inter-secretarial Climate Change Commission will be established.  

Decree 189 4/18/2009 - State Environmental Law - Establishes the regulatory framework for environmental matters for the State of Chiapas. It aims at the conservation of biodiversity, restoration of ecological balance, environmental protection and rational use of natural resources to promote sustainable development of the state, establishing the basis for issues such as indigenous rights and environmental protection.

Decree 145 20/10/2008 Sustainable Forestry in the State of Chiapas - Promotes the payment of ecosystem services (PES), including carbon capture, and states under the 7th Chapter that all federal, state and municipal funds for PES should be directed through the Forestry Trust (Fideicomiso Forestal).

Decree 207 29/7/1999 - Law of Indigenous Rights and Culture of the State of Chiapas - regulated by Article 7 of the State Political Constitution and its observance is of public order and social interest where the following indigenous peoples of the State of Chiapas are recognized and protected: Tzeltal, Tzotzil , Chol, Zoque, Tojolabal, Mame, Cakchiquel, Lacandón, Mocho, Jacalteco, Chuj and Kanjobal.

Interministerial Coordination Commission for Climate Change (CCICCCH)  -  chaired by the Governor and, in his absence, by the head of the SEMAHN. The CCICCCH is made up of the heads of state public administration bodies as presented in chapter IV of the LAMCCCH.The CCICCCH is responsible for government coordination in the area of Climate Change in the State of Chiapas and its resolutions and opinions are mandatory for the bodies that make up the state public administration (Article 15). The CCICCCH has several Working Groups (WG), two of which are related to the REDD+.

Advisory Council on Climate Change of the State of Chiapas (CCCCCH) - has the function of advising the CCICCCH and among its faculties is to follow up on the policies, actions and goals foreseen in the REDD+ Strategy.

The CCCCCH was created on February 25, 2014 and is integrated by the government sector through the Secretary of the SEMAHN (President) and the Under Secretary of Climate Change of the SEMAHN (Technical Secretary). It is comprised  of 13 ministries of the public state administration, responsible for designing and implementing climate change policy in the state according to the Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Law. 

State Ministry of the Countryside (SECAM) - Directs, coordinates and drives conformity with the National and state plans, programs of agricultural, livestock, and forestry development, as well as actions and policies of development for the state. SECAM also applies strategies and technological innovations to increase the efficiency of the agriculture and livestock sectors in Chiapas.

Institute of Civil Protection and Integrated Management of Risks of Disasters in Chiapas (IPC) - Directs actions implemented for the organisms of the institute orientated to the integrated management of risk of disaster.

State Ministry for Indigenous Villages and Cultures (SEPCI) - Promotes the acknowledgement, respect, and the full exercise of the collective rights of the 12 indigenous groups in Chiapas, people that represent the cultural richness of our state and are acknowledged by the local constitution.

General Justice Attorney of the State (PRO) - Represents the society in the investigation and persecution of environmental crimes, with the principles of legality, honor, efficiency, security and juridical certainty, which permits a functional structure of the procuration of justice, guaranteeing the integral development of the state of law.

Technical REDD+ Advisory Committee - Made up of local NGOs, academics, and federal government agents in social, technical, political, cultural, and environmental aspects of REDD+, including Pronatura Sur, Cooperativa AMBIO, the National Forestry Commission, the National Commission for Natural Protected Areas, ECOSUR, COLPOS, the Cultural Association Na Bolom, The Nature Conservancy, Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, Conservation International, and the Environmental Defense Fund.

Monitoring Reporting and Verification Working Group (GT MRV) - and a technical GT MRV working group made up of a variety of governmental, university, and civil society stakeholders, which advances monitoring and measurement of emissions from deforestation in the state.

Territorial and Ecological Zoning Programs

The Ministry of Environment and Natural History has developed Territorial and Ecological Zoning Programs in several regions of the state. The basis for zoning is described in Publication 1574/2010 and an overview of progress can be found here.

Territorial and Ecological Zoning Programs are in various stages of development, as listed below:

The Ministry of Environment and Natural History has planned, published, implemented, or modified Territorial and Ecological Zoning Programs in the following places at various stages of development:

Currently in planning stage: Oil Zone North Region V (Sub 2: Amato, Ixtacomitan, Ixtapangajoya and Solosuchiapa).- Areas affected by Hurricane Stan in Regions Isthmus Costa, Sierra and Soconusco (for Ecological Research).- Tapachula.- Coast of Chiapas (and Cintalapa Badoancho Basins).- Metropolitan Area of Tuxtla Gutierrez.- Zoning l Program for the Rio Grande Basin and Lagunas de Montebello National Park (Comitan, The Trinity, The Independence and Las Margaritas).

Published:

- State of Chiapas (POETCH) at a larger scale -2012

- Oil Zone North Region V (Subregion 1: Reform, Juarez, Sunuapa, Ostuacan and Pichucalco).

Under implementation:

- Sabinal River Subwatershed (POETSAB) -2010

- Lagartero River Subwatershed(POETLAG) - 2010

- Coapa River Subwatershed, Pijijiapa - 2012

Under evaluation:

- Playas de Catazaja

Under modification: 
- Zanatenco River Subwatershed, Tonala - 2004

Rights and Tenure

Legal support and protection of forest tenure. 
In Mexico, communal ownership of land is secured by the Constitution, Article 27. The state of Chiapas recognizes and respects property rights in accordance to the law. However, there are conflicts over land tenure and property limits among neighboring ejidos and comunidades throughout the state. The SRA (Ministry of the Agrarian Reform) is in charge of dealing with these controversies. The government of Chiapas has, in some cases, participated to mediate and settle land tenure controversies. At the "Zona Lacandona," most agrarian conflicts have already been solved. Plus, they have their own legal advisors about land tenure. 

Conflict resolution measures. 
At the local level, communities have their own institutions for conflict resolution. In agrarian ejidos and communities, decisions that affect them as a whole are voted on in assemblies. Conflicts over land and resources are solved by the ejido's, the community's Consejo de Vigilancia, the Comisariado de Bienes Comunales, at the general assembly, or eventually at the Agrarian Tribunal. The Ministry for Agrarian Reform has the responsibility to resolve property conflicts between the government and private land-owners.

Needs identified.

  • Defining legal aspects related to property and rights to forest carbon in REDD project areas
  • Strategies to deal with disputed lands
  • Further measures to guarantee respect for indigenous rights to forest tenure

Transparency and Participation

What actions have been taken to guarantee free, prior and informed consent? 

  • In 2010, we carried consultation workshops in nine strategic cities for the climate change action program, where a total of195 people participated from 39 municipalities, with public, social, academic and private sector participation.
  •  In 2012, we carried out training of trainers workshops about climate change and the role of forests in 11 strategic sites in Chiapas, covering 45 municipalities, with a total of 297 participants,including community leaders, social organizations, rural landowners, academicresearchers, municipal and state public officials.
  • Manuals for communities and trainers, copies of the climate change action program,didactic materials, were given out in every workshop.
  • These workshops aim to strengthen capacities and understanding in the regions of Chiapas about climate change, the state of the forests, Payment for Ecosystemservices, REDD+ mechanism and the status of international, national, state andmunicipal climate change policy.
  • The public policy proposals and comments were also recorded from every workshop, in order to consider the main concerns in every region and incorporate this into in policymaking.   

Briefly describe mechanisms for consultation and continuous participation addressed or planned by REDD Program in the development and implementation phases, include target groups assessed or planned to be, methods used (particularities to deal with capacity, timing and understanding of indigenous peoples and local communities.

  • Currently, social participation in the construction of the state REDD+ Vision and strategy has been organized throughthe official “technical REDD+ advisory group.
  • In October last year, we carried out workshops to collectively develop the REDD+ Vision through the identification of direct and indirect deforestation drivers in different regions in Chiapas,and the strategies needed to tackle the causes, in the 5 areas specified in the national REDD+ Vision: Public policy and institutional framework, capacity building, legal framework, public participation, identification of safeguards and MRV. 
  •  We invited and financially supported the participation of indigenous representativesfrom the Lacandona forest, coffee cooperatives and regional forestry association representatives. 
  • Other indigenous and productive sectors were identified for future meetings, and we learnt that many indigenous representatives, especially from the Lacandona forest expressed an interest in participating in future meetings; finally it is important to invest in developingand implementing communication and consultation strategies.  
  • We hope to finalize the integration of the final REDD+ Vision document in the next few months, and start on the elaboration of the state REDD+ strategy this year, to finish by 2014, which will include workshops to integrate a safeguard system and indicators. 

Information on transparency of REDD program: 

  • Available information: Climate Change Action Program and "forests and Climate Change" leaflet in English and Spanish.
     www.cambioclimaticochiapas.org
  • Climate Change Action Program full document, executive summary in English Available on the website.
    Public access: newspaper articles, government bulletins. 

Needs identified for improvement in participation and transparency. 

  • Greater involvement and participation of other community members that have no land ownership rights.
  • More workshops needed in target areas to involved more communities in the design of the REDD+ program.
  • Greater diffusion of the actions of the REDD+ group (an internet site, more workshops, etc.).
  • More correct and coherent information needed to be broadcasted on the television and in newspapers.

Benefit Sharing

Describe the PES or benefit sharing mechanisms currently in place or planned (concrete elements). 

  • El Ocote project: payments are made annually for 5 years, in anticipation and during the implementation of their Plan Vivo. 

Describe evidences for participation of stakeholders in the development of the mechanisms.

  • Workshops were successfully carried out.

Needs identified? 

  • Benefits sharing mechanisms should be better defined and agreed upon within the REDD+ group.