Aceh Indonesia

Current REDD+ Program Progress

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Strategy
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Aceh’s 2011 Operational Framework for REDD+ Implementation is as follows:

Governance

Complete the Aceh Spatial Plan and the Long- and Mid-Term Development Plan documents

Foster new policies

Develop the regional strategies for REDD+ documents

Create and strengthen institutions

Create coordination agencies and disseminate information

Provide capacity building

Develop a management plan and strengthen the forest protection system

Social and Economic Aspects

Add additional community rangers as the forest protection system

Rehabilitate critical land/forests (reforestation)

Develop community nursery/HTR

Adopt Free Prior and Informed Consent

Map boundaries of community management areas/customary forests

Develop a benefit-sharing mechanism

Data and MRV

Integrate data and information

Develop provincial baseline

Develop MRV system and mechanism based on the deforestation and forest degradation rate

REDD-Related Regulations

- Logging Moratorium: is a fundamental policy to protect forests through logging moratorium; it has saved about 500 thousand hectares of forest in active concessions (HPHs). Actually, the government of Aceh has saved from deforestation 464,110 cubic meters of timber/year or the total 1,392,330 cubic meters since the enactment of the moratorium, or equivalent to 12,620 ha of forest cover per year.

During the moratorium, domestic timber demand is fulfilled through the Timber Utilization Permit on Privately-Owned Land (IPKTM) mechanism on communities’ non-forest plantations. The policy is followed up by the development of three main strategies, i.e. redesign, reforestation and reduction of forest degradation rate.

- Aceh Forestry Policy Redesign: Based on the assessment by the TIPERESKA Team, which is mandated to develop the Aceh Strategic Forest Management Strategy, there are three main components to be improved: spatial planning, responsibilities / rights of the provincial government and institutional development. The spatial assessment has been incorporated into the spatial planning, concession licensing has been evaluated and several task forces have been created to follow up the outputs of the redesign.

- Policy and Strategy on Reforestation in Aceh Province: first priority to revitalize community plantation forests. Up to 2010 8,151 hectares were reserved for community plantation forests. In addition, as much as 24,000 hectares of critical land/protected forest were reforested during 2004 through 2007.

- Policy and Strategy on Law Enforcement: Continuous integrated operations by an integrated team created under a Governor’s Decree in areas with a high risk of forest degradation. Besides creating the integrated team, the government of Aceh has also developed a system for forest protection monitoring, which involves communities, i.e. establishment of 60-80 community rangers and recruitment of 2,300 forest security (Pamhut) officers.

- Policy on Evaluation on Forest Permits & Licenses: to integrate all active licenses (plantation, mineral and coal mining concessions), the government of Aceh has evaluated the performance and competency of all the concessionaires. The measure is done to maximize land utilization, re-distribute land to communities  and settle land or tenurial conflicts. The outputs of the evaluation will serve as a reference to determine the minimum investment threshold for concessionaires.

- Policy on Forest Protection and Conflict Resolution Systems: The Forest Protection System is developed upon three security levels, i.e. Forestry Police in the Forestry Office working with forest-crime units for training and operations, Forest Guard / Rangers whose function it is to patrol forest borders and Community Rangers – part of community involvement – whose responsibility is to protect the forest in the immediate vicinity of their villages.

REDD+ Related Regulations
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Spatial Planning
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- Aceh Spatial Plan (RTRWA): In the governmental context, sustainable development vision should be referred to in the planning and implementation of Aceh future development. Provincial laws (local term: qanun) on spatial plan and on long-term development plan currently being discussed by the provincial legislature are designed based on the principles of sustainable and just natural resource management to generate benefits for Aceh communities. Surely, both these laws will incorporate the five mainstreaming agendas above as a guarantee for the sustainability of development that is based on sustainable natural resources and prosperous communities. The suggestion to increase the size of protected forest as much as about 600,000 hectares or more than 70% of the province’s land (from the current less than 60% of the province’s land) is a form of political commitment, including of preparedness to address the ensuing implications on almost all of Aceh natural resource governance systems that need to be reformed to achieve the preparedness. (Source: Aceh REDD+ Proposal)

Stakeholder Engagement
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Most of Aceh population relies on forest resources and forest ecosystem services for their socioeconomic life. In order to support Aceh policies related to forest protection, a forest protection system has been established, which involves communities through activities and establishment of local institutions, among others:

Establishment of Community Ranger

Community Ranger is a group tasked with patrol and monitoring of forest originating from communities surrounding the forest. This group was formed with consideration to reduce pressure on forests as well as creating alternative livelihoods. Community Rangers are formed from ex-GAM combatants, ex-loggers, hunters, and local people who live in and around the forest. Until now the Government of Aceh has had 4 groups of Community Rangers: Aceh Besar, Aceh Jaya, Pidie, and Aceh Barat, with 15-20 members in each group or the total 60-80 rangers.

Pamhut

In addition to the Community Rangers, the Aceh Government has also established a Forest Security Unit (Pamhut) that were recruited from 2007 to 2009. Currently, the Government of Aceh has 2,300 PAMHUT officers who are responsible for providing security against the threat of illegal logging. Pamhut is created, among others, to reduce pressure on forests.

Watershed Forum and the Association of States Mukim 

Aceh Government also encouraged the birth of institutions/community forums saving forests and the environment, facilitated by the various NGOs working in Aceh (such as FFI-AFEP, WWF Aceh, and ESP-USAID). Up to now, 3 watershed forums have been established in Aceh Besar District (Forsaka, FAMS, and Forsela) and another in Aceh Jaya, with each watershed forum comprising approximately 100 people. In addition to the forums, the government of Aceh has also encouraged the birth of associations of States Mukim (traditional ‘adat’ government) in Aceh. Mukim is a historical institution that has a close relationship with the management and protection of forest resources. 

Mukim Forest Management Model 

Mukim is the unity of the traditional communities in the province of Aceh, which consists of a combination of several villages (gampong), each of which has its own territory and property. In the governmental context, Mukim is positioned under the sub-district heads led by Imeum Mukim. Mukim as a traditional Acehnese system of government started at the time Islam entered Aceh. From the golden age of Sultan Iskandar Muda and through the Dutch colonialism, the  mukim system was recognised. Originally, Mukim used to be positioned under ulee balang and control several gampong. During the New Order regime, the Mukim system was abolished but was restored in 2003 under Qanun (Law) No. 4 of 2003.

Community REDD/FPIC Process

The government of Aceh, particularly in relation to REDD development in the region of Ulu Masen, has designed a mechanism to involve communities in the immediate areas and related stakeholders through a FPIC (Free Prior and Inform Consent) process. The mechanism is attuned to the local capacity and culture of Aceh communities and has been implemented in the development of REDD projects in Ulu Masen.

Mukim Planning

A Mukim development planning meeting (Musrenbangkim) was held to help Mukim systematically identify the bottlenecks hampering community development, with a focus on integration of environmental protection and community economic development. 14 Mukim in 5 districts in Ulu Masen have collaboratively developed the plan.

Community Nursery/Alternative Livelihood

10 nurseries have been established and been operational to fulfill community’s needs in the framework of re-activating plantation activities. The nurseries support 13,639 people in three districts, supplying seeds as well as building their capacity in managing and processing plants and their products.

REDD Programs & Safeguards

REDD+ Programs

Aceh’s REDD program is integrated within an overall policy vision referred to as the ‘Aceh Green’ vision (or simply ‘Aceh Green’). This vision has already saved a total of 1,392,330 m3 of tropical hardwoods from being logged and 500,000 ha of forest being converted thanks to the implementation of a forestry moratorium. These steps are part of an overall green vision for Aceh Province, of which REDD plays a part, and will be integrated into Aceh’s spatial planning system, which is currently in the process of being legislated.

REDD is part of the five important principles of Aceh’s Provincial Government, these being: Green Development, Disaster Mitigation, sensitivity to Conflict and Peace, sensitivity to Gender, and peaceful, universal founding principles of Islam.

REDD strategies conceived or in process of conception to reverse deforestation and degradation.

The Agrarian Law of 1960 - Indonesian forestry jurisdiction and natural resource management. Guiding regulation for recognizing and awarding types of rights over land. - Functional

The Forestry Law of 1999 - Empowers the Department of Forestry to determine and manage Indonesia’s Kawasan Hutan (Forest Zone). Outlines forest function. - Functional

Permenhut No. 68/2008 - Describes the permission and approval procedures of REDD’s demonstration activities - Functional

Permenhut No. 30/2009 - Regulates procedures on the implementation of REDD including requirements that should be fulfilled by developers, verification and certifications, and terms and conditions of REDD’s implementing bodies - Functional

Permenhut No 36/2009 - Regulates the permission procedures of REDD projects through carbon sequestration and storage. It includes revenue sharing, application, collection, depositing, and utilisation procedures of revenue from REDD projects - Semi-functional / under review

Aceh Moratorium on Logging- A fundamental policy enabling forest protection, the moratorium is founded on the principles of ‘redesign’, ‘reforestation’ and ‘reduction of forest degradation’.  - Active

Aceh Forestry Policy Redesign / TIPERESKA - Under this policy the TIPERESKA team is focusing on three main elements, these being: spatial planning, responsibilities / rights of the provincial government and institutional development. This team is responsible for providing recommendations for spatial planning, evaluation of concession permits and establishment of required task forces for the redesign of Aceh forestry policy.  - Active

Policy and Strategy on Reforestation in Aceh Province - First priority on revitalizing community plantation forestry. Secondary focus is on reforestation of degraded and marginal land.  - Active

Policy and Strategy on Law Enforcement Aceh - Continuous strategy involving relevant stakeholders undertaken on areas with a high risk of degradation and deforestation.  - Active

Policy on Evaluation on Forest Permits & Licenses Aceh - Focusing on the integration of all active licensed activities (including oil palm and mining) and evaluation of competency and cooperation. Results of this evaluation will become a reference for minimum investment and responsibilities for future concession holders. - Active

Policy on Forest Protection and Conflict Resolution Systems Aceh - Forest protection system is being developed across three levels of Government, namely: Forestry Police in the Department of Forestry working with forest-crime units for training and operations, Forest Guard / Rangers whose function it is to patrol forest borders and Community Rangers, whose responsibility lies to protect that forest in the immediate vicinity of their villages. - Active

Institutional Framework

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REDD+ Safeguards

Target population and rights recognition

Social groups reached by the REDD Program and number of people directly benefited

The social groups targeted for outreach by the REDD Program are a) indigenous peoples who have traditional ownership rights to land / forest areas impacted by the REDD Program and 2) social groups (who may or may not be indigenous peoples) who directly impact the land / forest areas through their daily activities (both legal and illegal, i.e. collecting firewood, logging, conversion to agriculture, grazing). Other social groups include those who rely on the supply of forest products to support their own industry (i.e. small-scale logging mills / manufacturers, agricultural industry, supply of meat). In this way the REDD Program is aimed at benefiting those social groups who directly impact the forest and those groups who act as part of the ‘supply-chain’ of forest products. The number of people directly benefiting is not able to be quantified at this time because the program itself is still under development / implementation phase characterized by pilot projects identified in point 13.   

Procedures taken by proponent and evidence that REDD Program acknowledges the rights and role of indigenous peoples and local communities

Most of the social and economic conditions of the Acehnese people depend on forest resources and dependence on forest ecosystem services. In order to support the policies of the Government of Aceh related to forest protection to date has developed a system of forest protection by involving the community through activities and the establishment of local institutions, as follows; 

Establishment of Community Ranger 

Community Rangers are tasked with patrol and monitoring of forest products originating from communities surrounding the forest. This group was formed with consideration to reduce pressure on forests as well as create alternative livelihoods. Community Rangers are formed from ex-GAM combatants, ex-loggers, hunters, and local people who live in and around the forest. Until now the Government of Aceh has 4 groups of Community Rangers; Aceh Besar, Aceh Jaya, Pidie, and Aceh Barat.

Pamhut 

In addition to Community Rangers the Aceh Government has also established a Forest Security Unit (Pamhut) that have been recruited since 2007 to 2009. Currently the Government of Aceh has 2300 PAMHUT officers who are responsible for providing security against the threat of illegal forest logging. 

Watershed Forum and the Association of States Mukim 

Aceh Government also encouraged the birth of institutional / community forums saving forests and environment, facilitated by the various NGOs working in Aceh (such as FFI-AFEP, WWF Aceh, and ESP-USAID). Until now stand 3 watershed forums have been established in Aceh Besar District (Forsaka, FAMS, and Forsela), with each watershed forum composed of approximately 100 people. This has also led to the establishment of the Mukim (traditional ‘adat’ government) in Aceh which is a historical institution that has a close relationship with the management and protection of forest resources. 

Mukim Forest Management Model 

Mukim is the unity of the traditional community in the province of Aceh, which consists of a combination of several villages and located directly under the sub-district heads led by Imeum Mukim. Mukim is a traditional Acehnese system of government started since the entry of Islam in Aceh. From the time of Sultan Iskandar Muda and through colonialism, the  mukim system has been recognised. 

Needs identified for rights recognition improvement

There is a need for analysis of current legal frameworks (national and regional) to address rights recognition (incorporating land and carbon ownerships rights) in particular as relates to local and indigenous communities and regional and special autonomy laws.  This framework would need to be harmonized across provincial and central government regulations.

Land/forest tenure administration and relation with REDD

Legal support and protection of forest tenure

As outlined in Benefits Sharing, currently the only way to establish forest tenure which could be used to develop either voluntary or compliance REDD projects (i.e. establish long term carbon rights) is via the Central Government regulated system of land tenure licenses / permits.  

Clear responsibilities, capacity and authority for forest tenure administration

Authorities are devolved from the National Forestry Law and regulated by the system of land tenure licenses / permits outlined previously. In all cases permits granted by the Governor / Regent (Bupati) are subject to approval / recommendation by the Minister. Subsequently, in almost all cases, the final authority for forest tenure comes in the form of a Ministerial Decree (forest utilization license in the case of forest-based activities issued by the Minister of Forestry or land use permits for oil palm issued by the Minister of Agriculture).  

Actions planned or developed by governments to solve issues related to land tenure uncertainties within REDD priority areas - to be defined

Relation of forest tenure solving and REDD objectives/actions

The relation between forest tenure and REDD is central to REDD objectives / actions and importantly (being one of the objectives) equitable benefits sharing (as the process to establish tenure is reflected in the parties receiving benefits under the current mechanism). This point is also reflected in national vs. regional REDD objectives, in the sense that the current focus on meeting national emissions reductions should not be at the expense of meeting regional development. The harmonization of these factors is inherent in the Provincial Spatial Plan, although the impact of the impending (Norway-backed) moratorium will also need to be addressed in terms of REDD objectives / actions and the impact of the moratorium on tenure. 

Recognition of communities and indigenous peoples’ rights

The recognition of communities and indigenous people’s rights is considered a top priority within Provincial REDD development. It is also an extremely complex issue given its relationship to the National Forestry Law and lack of clarity regarding recognition of traditional rights in the Indonesian legal context. It is widely hoped that through development of FPIC mechanisms the recognition of community and indigenous people’s rights will be able to be strengthened.  

Participation of communities and indigenous peoples in forest tenure definition

Forest tenure definition is established by the Forestry Law 41 in 1999 (Forestry Ministry (Central Government)). Under this law, community / indigenous forest is incorporated as a sub-set of State (national) Forest. There are various NGO’s and community groups active in lobbying this definition and asserting stronger participation of communities and indigenous people’s groups in this definition and its impact on REDD (and REDD’s alternatives). 

Definition of legal aspects related to property and rights to forest carbon in REDD project areas.

As outlined under Benefits Sharing, property rights (i.e. rights to land) are administered by the Central Government and are required prior to establishing rights to forest carbon under regulation P.36. Currently, voluntary REDD project developers are using ‘Utilisation of Wood Forest Produce’ (IUPHHK) licenses to establish carbon rights (although none have yet sold verified carbon credits) and it is widely agreed (although not yet established) that legislated community (Hutan Rakyat) and indigenous ownership (Hutan Adat), both by Ministerial Decree, could be used to establish both property and carbon rights for communities under a voluntary scheme. 

Conflict resolution measures in place - to be defined

Needs identified - to be determined

What actions have been taken to guarantee free, prior and informed consent? - A FPIC program is currently under development (Norway Pilot Proposal, Table 5, point 2.4)

Briefly describes mechanisms for consultation and continuous participation addressed - to be defined

Information on transparency of REDD program - The Government of Aceh Anti-Corruption Team (TAKPA)’s goal is to strengthen governance and prevent losses to the public sector while ensuring transparency and accountability in REDD+ implementation. 

Needs identified for improvement in participation and transparency - to be determined

Describe the broad picture of how REDD program addresses social and economic well-being of forest dependent communities  - Currently, the REDD program is seeking to find the best ways through which to address the social and economic well-being of forest dependent communities. FPIC is a key part of this, but so too is certainty on national policy and international carbon markets. Without certainty on carbon markets (and supporting national regulations) it will not be possible to say that REDD can address the economic well being of forest dependent communities as it will not be possible to value the communities principle ‘asset’ (carbon). Naturally, social and economic wellbeing are interlinked, with pathways to support social wellbeing needing to be supported by economic drivers / mechanisms. 

Description of the PES or benefit sharing mechanisms currently in place or planned (concrete elements) – Currently, the only legislated benefit sharing mechanism in Indonesia is as outlined in Forestry Ministry Decree P.36/Menhut-II/2009 (Central Government) which stipulates the procedures for granting business license for the utilization of absorption and/or storage of carbon in production forest and protected forests. This license must be held in order to establish carbon rights and cannot be held as an independent license – it must be held in addition to a separate license (outlined in the below table as permits) through which the license-holder establishes an underlying right to the land itself. The first 4 license types are ‘Utilisation of Wood Forest Produce’ (IUPHHK) licenses including natural forest logging (HA), plantation forests (HT), ecosystem restoration (RE – note: this can also be used for PES), and community plantation forest (HTR). Points 5-8 refer to legislated community and indigenous ownership note this ownership is not inherent / automatic – community / indigenous groups would need to attain Ministerial Decree in order to establish a legal right to the land which could be used to ascertain carbon rights under P.36 (with the possible exception of Papua and Aceh, although this is ongoing). 

Note that P.36 is currently under review pending additional input from the Ministry for Finance. No distributions have as yet been made under this scheme. 

Describe evidences for participation of stakeholders in the development of the mechanisms - P.36 was widely hailed as the first benefit sharing mechanism legislated by any national government. However, it is widely considered that the mechanism could have benefitted further from more comprehensive stakeholder participation, both from within Government itself and affected stakeholder groups. As mentioned above, this regulation is currently under review.  

Needs identified - A comparison of different benefit sharing mechanisms being discussed / developed internationally. This would be most effectively done by coordination of the GCF Secretariat with GCF members. Important points would include more detailed analysis of the realities of potential beneficiaries (i.e. ‘on the ground’) and technical mechanisms on the checks and balances on the flow of REDD funds and benefits.

Environmental

Ecosystem Services

The Area of Leuser Ecosystem (KEL) is an area of forest serving as a highly important life supporting system for Aceh and North Sumatra. The ecological services are estimated to fetch USD600 million annually. Among the tangible services are flood and erosion prevention, supplier of water for agriculture, industry, households, and natural beauty (potentially developed for tourism). In addition to these, KEL plays an important role in regulating the local climate, thus contributing to preventing global warming. The forest is estimated to contain some 1.5 billion tons of carbon. Protecting the forest as well as three peatlands located in the western part of KEL can reduce increasing CO₂ concentration in the atmosphere. (http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kawasan_Ekosistem_Leuser)

Biodiversity

With its diverse flora and fauna, KEL proves to contribute to preservation of biodiversity. KEL is considered one of the areas with the richest biodiversity in South East Asia. Many rare species can be found in its lowland forest such as Sumatran elephants, (elephas maximus), orangutan (pongo pygmaeus), Sumatran tiger (panthera tigris sumatraensis), Sumatran rhino (dicherorinus sumatraensis) as well as bird species such as Argus pheasant. The forest is also home to Keruing tree, which is widely used in timber industry and is becoming increasingly rare. (http://www.leuserecosystem.org/id/leuser/124-leuser-largest-biodiversity.html)

Financing

Audit & Reviews

The GCF Knowledge Database will provide links to relevant audits and reviews of REDD related activities in GCF states and provinces. In addition to making this information available as part of the database, the information generated through relevant audits and reviews will be used to update and improve the quality of the information in the database and to provide feedback to GCF states and provinces as they move forward in developing programs to reduce emissions from land use and deforestation.

[For now, this is the same on each state/province page.]

Registry

With its diverse flora and fauna, KEL proves to contribute to preservation of biodiversity. KEL is considered one of the areas with the richest biodiversity in South East Asia. Many rare species can be found in its lowland forest such as Sumatran elephants, (elephas maximus), orangutan (pongo pygmaeus), Sumatran tiger (panthera tigris sumatraensis), Sumatran rhino (dicherorinus sumatraensis) as well as bird species such as Argus pheasant. The forest is also home to Keruing tree, which is widely used in timber industry and is becoming increasingly rare. (http://www.leuserecosystem.org/id/leuser/124-leuser-largest-biodiversity.html)

Financing

Audit & Reviews

The GCF Knowledge Database will provide links to relevant audits and reviews of REDD related activities in GCF states and provinces. In addition to making this information available as part of the database, the information generated through relevant audits and reviews will be used to update and improve the quality of the information in the database and to provide feedback to GCF states and provinces as they move forward in developing programs to reduce emissions from land use and deforestation.

[For now, this is the same on each state/province page.]

Registry

The Area of Leuser Ecosystem (KEL) is an area of forest serving as a highly important life supporting system for Aceh and North Sumatra. The ecological services are estimated to fetch USD600 million annually. Among the tangible services are flood and erosion prevention, supplier of water for agriculture, industry, households, and natural beauty (potentially developed for tourism). In addition to these, KEL plays an important role in regulating the local climate, thus contributing to preventing global warming. The forest is estimated to contain some 1.5 billion tons of carbon. Protecting the forest as well as three peatlands located in the western part of KEL can reduce increasing CO₂ concentration in the atmosphere. (http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kawasan_Ekosistem_Leuser)

Sources