Amazonas Brazil

Current REDD+ Program Progress

Plan for Prevention and Control of Deforestation
Under Implementation[1]

Amazonas has completed phase two of its PPCD, covering the period of 2012-2015. The strategies outlined in the PPCD  focus on spatial planning, monitoring and enforcement, and property regularization through the Rural Environmental Registry (CAR)

REDD+ Related Laws
Under Implementation[2]

These laws outline the legal framework for climate change policies related to several sectors of the economy and determine the mechanisms by which civil society can participate in the design and regulation of the policy.

Ecological and Economic Zoning
--

Amazonas completed a statewide master ZEE in 2009 and has since begun developing region specific ZEEs for Madeira and Purus.  The macro plan was normalized through state law  nº 3.417 (2009), while the Purus plan was normalized through state law 3.645 (2011) and both have been approved federally.  The Madeira plan is still in process. State decree nº 24.048 instituted a state commission on ZEE.

In 2016 Amazonas received funding from KfW to implement the Madeira zoning plan. 

Land Registry
--

The Rural Environmental Land Registry (CAR) is a federally-mandated, satellite-based land registry system for rural properties which is required for environmental licensing, monitoring and enforcement. In Amazonas State Law  3.635 7/6/2011 created the legal basis for the the Rural Environmental Registry (CAR), which regulates the environmental liabilities of rural properties in the State of Amazonas;[3]

REDD+ Programs

REDD strategies to reverse deforestation and degradation developed or in development

Along with the strategy to control and combat deforestation, Amazonas has been developing early actions (such as small-scale projects in state-managed conservation areas, in partnership with Bolsa Floresta) and creating the framework for larger-scale actions. The focus in 2010-2011 is on capacity-building and sector-based consultations in preparation for these larger-scale actions. Amazonas is currently working to assess its needs with respect to establishing and implementing a large-scale program that fosters actions on private lands and potentially within indigenous areas (Amazonas’ 178 indigenous lands comprise 431,960 km²). Amazonas’ State Forum on Climate Change is working to develop the legal framework for rewarding ecosystem services protection and avoided deforestation outside of protected areas where rights and land tenure are frequently not established.

Needs to develop a REDD Program

One of the concrete actions of this preparatory phase is the work to establish a carbon registry, in which projects of all sizes and origins can be accounted for according to a standard methodology and accountability protocol. At the moment, Amazonas prefers a public registry system although this has not yet been determined.

State Law 4.266 12/2015 - establishes the State Policy om Environmental Services (including REDD+)  and  reates the State Fund for Climate Change, Environmental Conservation and Environmental Servicese.  The law which clarifies instutional arrangements and support for REDD+ management and implementation.  

State Law  3.635 7/6/2011 created the legal basis for the the Rural Environmental Registry -being implemented

Law 3527, 07/28/2010 - Regulates forest concessions in designated sustainable use areas, with the aim of promoting multiple use of forest resources and environmental services provision - Being implemented

UGMUC – Law 3244, 04/04/2008 - Creates the Unit Manager for the State Climate Change Center and the State Center for Protected Areas - Fully functional

Law 3.244 4/2008, (Ceclima) created the State Center for Climate Change (Ceclima) - fully functional

Delegated Law 66, 05/06/2007 - Defines regulations for the State Secretariat for Environment and Sustainable Development - Fully functional

State Law of Climate Changes3135, 06/05/2007 - Institutes the State Policy for Climate Change, Environmental Conservation, and Sustainable Development - Fully functional

CEMAAM Law 2985, 10/18/2005 - Institutes the Amazonas State Council for the Environment (CEMAAM) - Fully functional

Content Currently Unavailable
Content Currently Unavailable
Content Currently Unavailable

REDD+ Safeguards

Target population and recognition of rights

Social groups reached by the REDD Program and number of people directly benefited.

-To date, traditional populations in the following forest reserve areas:

JUMA: 339 families (FAS Juma report, 2008)

Bolsa Floresta: 7143 families in 15 protected areas (October 2010, source: e-siga.am.gov.br).

-Potential to reach traditional populations outside of reserves and other indigenous populations (66 in total; indigenous lands under federal jurisdiction, thus, REDD plans here would have to be developed in coordination with both the local indigenous and federal governments).

-Potential for inclusion of small landholders in land reform settlements and large-scale farmers.

Procedures taken by proponent and evidence that REDD Program acknowledges the rights and role of indigenous peoples and local communities.

The intention of the program is to include representatives of indigenous peoples and traditional populations in all stages of program development, depending on their interest. Amazonas’ REDD program has not worked with indigenous communities in the past. Federally, indigenous communities are given a lot of autonomy, including the unalienable right to perform traditional activities (including timber extraction) on their land, something that is unable to be taken away through contract or further negotiation.

Needs identified for improving recognition of rights

-Work collaboratively with State Secretariat for Indigenous Peoples, FUNAI (National Indian Foundation), and the Coordination of Indigenous Organizations in the Amazon (COICA) in order to integrate indigenous lands into the statewide REDD program and establish a legal and procedural framework for doing so.

-Work collaboratively with the Council of Traditional Populations of Amazonas to develop program outside of protected areas.

-Establish a monitoring and evaluation methodology for Bolsa Floresta according to the REDD standards.

Land/forest tenure administration in relation to REDD

Legal support and protection of forest tenure - Topic not addressed by Government.

Clear responsibilities, capacity and authority for forest tenure administration

 -  ITEAM (Institute of Land in Amazonas) is responsible for regularizing land titles and working on the politics of land rights through agrarian reform

 - INCRA (National Institute of Colonization and Land Reform) is responsible for forest tenure administration within indigenous areas and other federal lands

Actions planned or developed by government to resolve issues related to land tenure uncertainties within REDD priority areas - Topic not addressed by Government.

Relationship between land tenure resolution and REDD objectives and actions

 - Evidence suggests that lack of established land tenure in land reform settlements may contribute to deforestation (in Amazonas, settlements account for 5% of forest and 15% of deforestation).

 - Solving forest tenure would potentially give people more incentive to work land in a more sustainable, long-lasting method and cut down on deforestation

 - The REDD system cannot go into effect in any area where land rights aren’t regulated.

Recognition of communities and indigenous peoples’ rights - Topic not addressed by Government.

Participation of communities and indigenous peoples in forest tenure definition

 - ITEAM instituted Forum da Terra (Land Forum) initiate community-level discussions in contentious counties.

Definition of legal aspects related to forest carbon ownership and rights in REDD project areas

Within state conservation areas, land belongs to the state. A Concession of Real Right of Use is given to communities and is renewed on a regular basis. In current projects, this concession acts effectively as a transfer of some carbon rights. In addition, communities are rewarded for avoiding deforestation.

Carbon rights outside of conservation areas are still under discussion by the State Forum on Climate Change.

Conflict resolution measures in place - Topic not addressed by Government.

Needs identified - Topic not addressed by Government.

Transparency and participation mechanisms

What actions have been taken to guarantee free, prior and informed consent?

- Currently unavailable as the project is still in development, although Brazil recognizes the referenced

International Labor Organization Convention 169.

Briefly describe mechanisms for consultation and continuous participation

The State Forum for Climate Change, Biodiversity, Environmental Services and Energy brings together 49 organizations representing diverse interests (including 17 state, 9 federal, 3 county, 3 labor unions, 7 environmental NGOs, 3 social organizations, and 3 multi-stakeholder fora). Twenty-one of these organizations (including FUNAI and COIAB, Coordination of Indigenous Organizations in Brazil) participate in the Forum’s Land Use, Forests, and Ecosystem Services Working Group which is assigned to the task of developing the REDD program. This open and researcher-supported group is not only responsible for producing recommendations but also for designing the REDD program development process in partnership with the Forum’s governmental Secretary. In 2010, this working group has held 7 meetings. All potential private and public actors are encouraged to participate in the working group. Further stakeholder consultation meetings will be held starting in August 2010 to further the development of the program’s legal framework.

Information on transparency of REDD program

The progress of the working group and the proceedings of each meeting are made publicly available via an email list and publication on the state government’s website.

Needs identified for improvement in participation and transparency

 - Mapping REDD initiatives implemented by various institutions in Amazonas

 - Increase visibility in the local media

 - Plan for working in and carry out consultations in the counties outside of Manaus

 - Explicitly include and reference indigenous peoples’ rights in any state REDD program document

Benefit sharing mechanisms

Describe the broad picture of how REDD program addresses social and economic well-being of forest dependent communities, including poverty reduction, equitable benefit sharing

Bolsa Floresta (“Forest Allowance”) invests in the economic development of any non-deforesting activity, promotes social development through improved education and health, and supports group rights through community organizing activities.

Description of the PES or benefit sharing mechanisms currently in place or planned

Bolsa Floresta is a benefit-sharing program for all State Protected Areas, roughly 10 million hectares of forest. It rewards inhabitants for sustainable development and forest preservation through 1) direct monthly payments, 2) investment in non-deforesting, income-creating projects, 3) investment in social (e.g., education, health) programs, and 4) support for grass-root organizations.

Describe evidence for participation of stakeholders in the development of the mechanisms

Public consultations guided Bolsa Floresta planning, such as the decision to give access to direct payments to the female head of the household.

Needs identified

 - Legal framework for expanding these programs outside of protected areas and potentially into indigenous territories

 - Develop guidelines through a consultation process for benefit-sharing activities outside of State Protected Areas.

Content Currently Unavailable
Content Currently Unavailable

Sources