West Kalimantan Indonesia

Current REDD+ Program Progress

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Strategy
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The provincial government of West Kalimantan will support REDD in 3 ways, namely:

1. Reducing deforestation through continuous improvement in local government policies and institutions including law enforcement and management of Technical Implementation Units (UPT’s). Current UPTs already established include UPT Inventarisasi dan Pemetaan Hutan (forest inventory and mapping), UPT Pengendalian Kebakaran Hutan dan Lahan (forest and land fire control), UPT Bukit Baka Bukit Raya National Park, UPT Gunung Palung National Park, UPT Betung Karihun National Park, Balai Pengelolaan DAS (River Basin Management Office), Balai Konservasi Sumber Daya Hutan (Forest Resource Conservation Office), Balai Pemantapan Kawasan Hutan Wil III (regional office of the forestry planning agency (BAPLAN) – Region 3), Balai Pemantauan Hasil Hutan Produksi Wil X (Production Forest Product Monitoring Agency – Region X), Pusat Info Kehutanan (center for forestry information), FLEG-T (currently nonoperational).

2. Creating incentives for better forest management and removing incentives that lead to deforestation from private parties who exploit natural resources belong to the public; establishing a Green Investment Award to forestry, plantation, agriculture and mining companies which implement Zero Burning and Reduced Impact Logging (RIL) policies; and establishing a mechanism for environmental assessment through an integrated team consisting of NGOs, universities and government agencies.

3. Overseeing payments / incentives for REDD so as to avoid corruption by certain elites through a mechanism which is transparent, accountable and free from political influence. This mechanism would involve the stakeholders / community organizations that already exist such as the Council of Traditional Malay Culture (MABM), the Council of Indigenous Dayak (DAD), and other indigenous people alliances at both district/city and village level.

REDD-Related Regulations

In order to implement the action plan in the field of forestry, the provincial government has issued several related regulations, these being:

West Kalimantan Provincial Regulation No. 8 Year 2006 on the Utilization and Distribution of Belian Wood in the Region of West Kalimantan Province.

West Kalimantan Provincial Regulation No. 6 of 1998 on Prevention and Control of Forest and Land Fires.

Governor Regulation No. 103 of 2009 on Procedure for Mobilization of Controls for Land and Forest Fires in West Kalimantan Province.

Governor's Decree No. 35 of 2010 on Guidelines for Verification of Applications for Village Forest Management Rights in West Kalimantan Province.

The provincial government and legislature (DPRD) of West Kalimantan are currently discussing the proposed provincial regulation on investment in West Kalimantan Province, and the proposed provincial regulation on quality management of surface water.

REDD+ Related Regulations
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Spatial Planning
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In the governmental context, the provincial government of West Kalimantan has integrated sustainable development vision and mission into its policy strategies. It is currently revising its spatial plan (50-60% of the province is forested) and optimizing 1,509,000 hectares of non-productive forested land for HTI (industrial plantation forest) (under licensing process). The province’s regional development concept is divided into 5 regions: 1. intercountry border region in the north (Serawak, Malaysia), 2. coastal region in the west, 3. interprovince border region in the east (Central Kalimantan), 4. central region, which is the Tayan Development Area, and 5. HoB (Heart of Borneo) Conservation Region. The regions are clearly shown on the map.

West Kalimantan spatial pattern includes:

Settlement areas (village/kampong) in forest areas or protected forests;

±18.2% of the province area is part of Heart of Borneo;

Development of Border Regions, KAPET Khatulistiwa, Kawasan Terpadu Mandiri (KTM), and other strategic regions ;

Coastal regions and small islands (not yet accommodated in Perda (provincial regulation) No.5 Th. 2004 on West Kalimantan Spatial Plan);

Declining agricultural land (Law No. 41 of 2009 on Protection of Sustainable Food Land);

Development of mining areas (Government Regulation No. 22 of 2010 on Mining Areas);

Natural disaster threat: abrasion, floods (tidal floods, flash floods, landslides), forest and peat fires.

Stakeholder Engagement
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More than 60% of the province’s population relies on forest resources and forest services for their socioeconomic life. Therefore, the government encourages community involvement in forest protection, namely:

Strategic Environmental Assessment (KLHS) of Kapuas River Basin developed by Forum DAS (River Basin Forum), which involved all the stakeholders (NGOs, media, universities, professional associations, related government agencies);

Forest Protection (Pamhut) by indigenous peoples in several districts;

REDD+ Community, whose establishment is being assessed by the related government agency when there are REDD-related activities to be implemented in West Kalimantan.

The provincial government of West Kalimantan will cooperate with NGOs such as OEDAS, which will coordinate all the activities concerned. Communities can advantageously use the opportunities provided by carbon funding and carbon trade schemes, such as:

Opportunity to have support for technical capacity building, technology to quantify carbon stocks, more accurate database, monitoring system and institutional building;

Engagement in developing a pilot model from now on or when the province is selected as a REDD pilot province;

Opportunity to have their management units certified, particularly those for the purpose of carbon trade;

Opportunity to receive offset from companies/other sectors, including those operating nearby, so a mutually beneficial relationship can be established to maintain the environment;

Direct incentives from forest products if they are engaged in carbon trade mechanism;

Opportunity to have recognition of the legality of community-based forest management.

REDD Programs & Safeguards

REDD+ Programs

REDD strategies conceived or in process of conception to reverse deforestation and degradation

The Provincial Government of West Kalimantan has adopted three principles strategies for the development and implementation of REDD, these being:

1.  Reducing deforestation through continuous improvement in local government policies and institutions including law enforcement and management of Technical Implementation Units (UPT’s). Current UPTs already established include the UPT on Forest Inventory and Mapping, Land and Forest Fire Control Unit, the National Parks Unit, the Institute for Watershed Management, the Forest Resources Conservation Center, the Institute for Monitoring of Forest Production and the Forestry Information Center.

2.   Creating incentives for better forest management and removing incentives that lead to deforestation from private parties who exploit natural resources that belong to the public.  Establish a Green Investment Award to companies in the field of forestry, plantation, agriculture and mining in implementing Zero Burning and Reduced Impact Logging (RIL) policies. Establish a mechanism for environmental assessment through an integrated team consisting of NGOs, media, universities and government agencies.

3.   Overseeing payments / incentives for REDD so as to avoid corruption by certain elites while supported by mechanisms which are transparent, accountable and free from political influence. This mechanism would involve the stakeholders / community organizations that already exist such as the Council of Traditional Malay Culture (MABM), Council of Indigenous Dayak (DAD), the Alliance of other indigenous communities both at the level of district / city or village.

In addition to this the Government of West Kalimantan is revising its spatial plan with the goal of maintaining 50-60% of West Kalimantan forested while optimizing 1.5 million hectares of non-productive forest estates.

The Agrarian Law of 1960 - Indonesian forestry jurisdiction and natural resource management. Guiding regulation for recognizing and awarding types of rights over land. - Functional

The Forestry Law of 1999 - Empowers the Department of Forestry to determine and manage Indonesia’s Kawasan Hutan (Forest Zone). Outlines forest function. - Functional

Permenhut No. 68/2008 - Describes the permission and approval procedures of REDD’s demonstration activities - Functional

Permenhut No. 30/2009 - Regulates procedures on the implementation of REDD including requirements that should be fulfilled by developers, verification and certifications, and terms and conditions of REDD’s implementing bodies - Functional

Permenhut No 36/2009 - Regulates the permission procedures of REDD projects through carbon sequestration and storage. It includes revenues sharing, application, collection, depositing, and utilisation procedures of revenues from REDD projects - Semi-functional / under review

West Kalimantan Provincial Regulation No. 8 Year 2006 - About the Utilization and Distribution of Belian Wood in the Region of West Kalimantan Province.  - Active

West Kalimantan Provincial Regulation No. 6 of 1998 - About Fire Prevention and Control of Forest and Land.  - Active

Governor Regulation No. 103 of 2009 - Procedure and Controls for Land and Forest Fires in West Kalimantan - Active

Governor's Decree No.  35 of 2010 - Concerning Guidelines and Verification for the  Application of Village Forest Management Rights In West Kalimantan Province – Active

P.20/Menhut-II/2012 – on Implementation of Forest Carbon

P.18/Menhut-II/2012 dated 11 April 2012 – on Procedures for Assessing Compensation for Plants Rehabilitated from Forest Use and Changes in Forest Use

P.19/Menhut-II/2012 dated 11 April 2012 – on Second Amendment to Forestry Minister’s Decree (Permenhut) No. P.62/Menhut-II/2008 on Work Plan for Utilization of Timber Products from Industrial Plantation Forests and People’s Plantation Forests

P.17/Menhut-II/2012 dated 8 April 2012 – on Technical Guidelines to People’s Nursery

P.13/Menhut-II/2012 dated 2 April 2012 – on Provision of Online Information on Forestry Licensing

P.14/Menhut-II/2012 dated 8 April 2012 – on Guidelines to Implementation of Forest and Land Rehabilitation in 2012

P.15/Menhut-II/2012 dated 8 April 2012 – on General Guidelines to Development of Conservation-Based Rural Forestry

P.16/Menhut-II/2012 dated 8 April 2012 – on Guidelines to One-Billion-Tree Planting in 2012

P.12/Menhut-II/2012 – on Second Amendment to Permenhut No. P.32/Menhut-II/2009 on Procedures for Developing Technical Plan for Forest and Land Rehabilitation in Riparian Areas (Rtk RHL-DAS)

Government Regulation No.37 of 2012 dated 1 March 2012 – on River Basin Management

P.6/Menhut-II/2012 dated 10 February 2012 – on Devolution of Part of Governmental Affairs in the Field of Forestry in 2012 to 33 Governors as Government’s Representatives

P.7/Menhut-II/2012 dated 10 February 2012 – on Devolution of Part of Governmental Affairs in the Field of Forestry in 2012 to Berau Regent, Malinau Regent, and Kapuas Hulu Regent in the framework of REDD Demonstration Activities

P.4/Menhut-II/2012 dated 26 January 2012 – on Amendment to Permenhut No. P.48/Menhut-II/2010 on Ecotourism Development in Reserves, National Parks, Forest Parks and Natural Tourism Parks

P.1/Menhut-II/2012 dated 9 January 2012 – on Guidelines to Province Level Forestry Planning

Institutional Framework

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REDD+ Safeguards

Target population and rights recognition

Social groups reached by the REDD Program and number of people directly benefited

The social groups targeted for outreach by the REDD Program are a) indigenous peoples who have traditional ownership rights to land / forest areas impacted by the REDD Program and 2) social groups (who may or may not be indigenous peoples) who directly impact the land / forest areas through their daily activities (both legal and illegal, i.e. collecting firewood, logging, conversion to agriculture, grazing). Other social groups include those who rely on the supply of forest products to support their own industry (i.e. small-scale logging mills / manufacturers, agricultural industry, supply of meat). In this way the REDD Program is aimed at benefiting those social groups who directly impact the forest and those groups who act as part of the ‘supply-chain’ of forest products. The number of people directly benefiting is not able to be quantified at this time because the program itself is still under development / implementation phase characterized by pilot projects identified in point 13.   

Procedures taken by proponent and evidence that REDD Program acknowledges the rights and role of indigenous peoples and local communities

In West Kalimantan, the West Kalimantan Malay Customary Council, the Council of Indigenous Dayak and the Ethnic Alliance are both active and respected entities. It is together with these entities that the government is active in capacity building, technical assistance and technology transfer with the goal that social institutions can be strengthened in line with government institutions in order to strengthen the ability to calculate carbon stocks and establishment of a forestry database in order to effectively implement community-based forest management.  It is envisaged that REDD will be able to preserve a balanced forest function in terms of economy and ecology while directly benefiting both local and global communities. 

Needs identified for rights recognition improvement

There is a need for analysis of current legal frameworks (national and regional) to address rights recognition (incorporating land and carbon ownerships rights) in particular as relates to local and indigenous communities and regional and special autonomy laws.  This framework would need to be harmonized across provincial and central government regulations.

Land/forest tenure administration and relation with REDD

Legal support and protection of forest tenure

As outlined in Benefits Sharing, currently the only way to establish forest tenure which could be used to develop either voluntary or compliance REDD projects (i.e. establish long term carbon rights) is via the Central Government regulated system of land tenure licenses / permits.  

Clear responsibilities, capacity and authority for forest tenure administration

Authorities are devolved from the National Forestry Law and regulated by the system of land tenure licenses / permits outlined previously. In all cases permits granted by the Governor / Regent (Bupati) are subject to approval / recommendation by the Minister. Subsequently, in almost all cases, the final authority for forest tenure comes in the form of a Ministerial Decree (forest utilization license in the case of forest-based activities issued by the Minister of Forestry or land use permits for oil palm issued by the Minister of Agriculture).  

Actions planned or developed by governments to solve issues related to land tenure uncertainties within REDD priority areas - to be defined

Relation of forest tenure solving and REDD objectives/actions

The relation between forest tenure and REDD is central to REDD objectives / actions and importantly (being one of the objectives) equitable benefits sharing (as the process to establish tenure is reflected in the parties receiving benefits under the current mechanism). This point is also reflected in national vs. regional REDD objectives, in the sense that the current focus on meeting national emissions reductions should not be at the expense of meeting regional development. The harmonization of these factors is inherent in the Provincial Spatial Plan, although the impact of the impending (Norway-backed) moratorium will also need to be addressed in terms of REDD objectives / actions and the impact of the moratorium on tenure. 

Recognition of communities and indigenous peoples’ rights

The recognition of communities and indigenous people’s rights is considered a top priority within Provincial REDD development. It is also an extremely complex issue given its relationship to the National Forestry Law and lack of clarity regarding recognition of traditional rights in the Indonesian legal context. It is widely hoped that through development of FPIC mechanisms the recognition of community and indigenous people’s rights will be able to be strengthened.  

Participation of communities and indigenous peoples in forest tenure definition

Forest tenure definition is established by the Forestry Law 41 in 1999 (Forestry Ministry (Central Government)). Under this law, community / indigenous forest is incorporated as a sub-set of State (national) Forest. There are various NGO’s and community groups active in lobbying this definition and asserting stronger participation of communities and indigenous people’s groups in this definition and its impact on REDD (and REDD’s alternatives). 

Definition of legal aspects related to property and rights to forest carbon in REDD project areas.

As outlined in Benefits Sharing, property rights (i.e. rights to land) are administered by the Central Government and are required prior to establishing rights to forest carbon under regulation P.36. Currently voluntary REDD project developers are using ‘Utilisation of Wood Forest Produce’ (IUPHHK) licenses to establish carbon rights (although none have yet sold verified carbon credits) and it is widely agreed (although not yet established) that legislated community (Hutan Rakyat) and indigenous ownership (Hutan Adat), both by Ministerial Decree, could be used to establish both property and carbon rights for communities under a voluntary scheme. 

Conflict resolution measures in place - to be defined

Needs identified - to be determined

Transparency and participation mechanisms

What actions have been taken to guarantee free, prior and informed consent? - to be defined

Briefly describes mechanisms for consultation and continuous participation addressed

Given that more than 60% of the socio-economic conditions in West Kalimantan are dependent on the forests and resultant eco-system services, the government has taken the initiative to ensure as much as possible the participation of local communities and their representatives. In addition to working with the West Kalimantan Malay Customary Council, the Council of Indigenous Dayak and the Ethnic Alliance, the government of West Kalimantan has encouraged consultation and participation via the following activities:

1. Development of Strategic Natural Assessment (KLHS) and Watershed Forum (DAS) with multi-stakeholder involvement including NGO’s, communities, media, universities, professional associations and service agencies.

2. Forest Rangers (Pamhut) comprised of indigenous people to secure forest in several districts.

3. Engagement of the ‘REDD+ community’. In order to achieve this the government is engaged with a number of NGOs including OEDAS who are assisting in coordinating activities and building on opportunities which will be available to local communities (including pilot models). 

Information on transparency of REDD program

Transparency is built upon the efforts to the West Kalimantan government as outlined above.

Needs identified for improvement in participation and transparency - to be determined

Benefit sharing mechanisms

Describe the broad picture of how REDD program addresses social and economic well-being of forest dependent communities 

Currently, the REDD program is seeking to find the best ways through which to address the social and economic well-being of forest dependent communities. FPIC is a key part of this, but so too is certainty on national policy and international carbon markets. Without certainty on carbon markets (and supporting national regulations) it will not be possible to say that REDD can address the economic well being of forest dependent communities as it will not be possible to value the communities principle ‘asset’ (carbon). Naturally, social and economic wellbeing are interlinked, with pathways to support social wellbeing needing to be supported by economic drivers / mechanisms. 

Description of the PES or benefit sharing mechanisms currently in place or planned (concrete elements)

Currently, the only legislated benefit sharing mechanism in Indonesia is as outlined in Forestry Ministry Decree P.36/Menhut-II/2009 (Central Government) which stipulates the procedures for granting business license for the utilization of absorption and/or storage of carbon in production forest and protected forests. This license must be held in order to establish carbon rights and cannot be held as an independent license – it must be held in addition to a separate license (outlined in the below table as permits) through which the license-holder establishes an underlying right to the land itself. The first 4 license types are ‘Utilisation of Wood Forest Produce’ (IUPHHK) licenses including natural forest logging (HA), plantation forests (HT), ecosystem restoration (RE – note: this can also be used for PES), and community plantation forest (HTR). Points 5-8 refer to legislated community and indigenous ownership (note this ownership is not inherent / automatic – community / indigenous groups would need to attain Mini terial Decree in order to establish a legal right to the land which could be used to ascertain carbon rights under P.36 (with the possible exception of Papua and Aceh, although this is ongoing). 

Note that P.36 is currently under review pending additional input from the Ministry for Finance. No distributions have as yet been made under this scheme. 

Describe evidences for participation of stakeholders in the development of the mechanisms

P.36 was widely hailed as the first benefit sharing mechanism legislated by any national government. However, it is widely considered that the mechanism could have benefitted further from more comprehensive stakeholder participation, both from within Government itself and affected stakeholder groups. As mentioned above, this regulation is currently under review.  

Needs identified - A comparison of different benefit sharing mechanisms being discussed / developed internationally. This would be most effectively done by coordination of the GCF Secretariat with GCF members. Important points would include more detailed analysis of the realities of potential beneficiaries (i.e. ‘on the ground’) and technical mechanisms on the checks and balances on the flow of REDD funds and benefits.

Environmental

Ecosystem Services

One of the potential environmental services in West Kalimantan Province is its typical ecosystems, which can be utilized as ecotourism destinations. Based on the data from National Park Offices and the Provincial Natural Resource Conservation Agency (BKSDA) (2010), there are some potential areas inside the forests for ecotourism purposes. All these potential areas lie in conservation areas. It is estimated that there are a large number of non-conservation areas potentially developed for ecotourism but both the locations and potential are not well documented.

Biodiversity

West Kalimantan Province contains exceptionally rich flora and fauna biodiversity. Some endemic species are established as the province’s icons such as the Enggang Gading bird and the tengkawang tree. Some of the province’s flora and fauna are protected.

Three ecosystem types exist in the forests and strongly support the existence of diverse flora and fauna. Among the species found in the province are Meranti (Shorea spp), Jelutung (Dyera costulata), Keladan (Dryobalanops becarii), Mabang (Shorea pachyphylla), Kebaca (Melanorrhea walicchii) and Ramin (Gonystylus bancanus). Wild animals are also found here, including wild boars (Sus barbatus), Owa (Hylobathes agilis), monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and Enggang Hitam bird (Bucherotidae).

Financing

Audit & Reviews

The GCF Knowledge Database will provide links to relevant audits and reviews of REDD related activities in GCF states and provinces. In addition to making this information available as part of the database, the information generated through relevant audits and reviews will be used to update and improve the quality of the information in the database and to provide feedback to GCF states and provinces as they move forward in developing programs to reduce emissions from land use and deforestation.

[For now, this is the same on each state/province page.]

Registry

West Kalimantan Province contains exceptionally rich flora and fauna biodiversity. Some endemic species are established as the province’s icons such as the Enggang Gading bird and the tengkawang tree. Some of the province’s flora and fauna are protected.

Three ecosystem types exist in the forests and strongly support the existence of diverse flora and fauna. Among the species found in the province are Meranti (Shorea spp), Jelutung (Dyera costulata), Keladan (Dryobalanops becarii), Mabang (Shorea pachyphylla), Kebaca (Melanorrhea walicchii) and Ramin (Gonystylus bancanus). Wild animals are also found here, including wild boars (Sus barbatus), Owa (Hylobathes agilis), monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and Enggang Hitam bird (Bucherotidae).

Financing

Audit & Reviews

The GCF Knowledge Database will provide links to relevant audits and reviews of REDD related activities in GCF states and provinces. In addition to making this information available as part of the database, the information generated through relevant audits and reviews will be used to update and improve the quality of the information in the database and to provide feedback to GCF states and provinces as they move forward in developing programs to reduce emissions from land use and deforestation.

[For now, this is the same on each state/province page.]

Registry

One of the potential environmental services in West Kalimantan Province is its typical ecosystems, which can be utilized as ecotourism destinations. Based on the data from National Park Offices and the Provincial Natural Resource Conservation Agency (BKSDA) (2010), there are some potential areas inside the forests for ecotourism purposes. All these potential areas lie in conservation areas. It is estimated that there are a large number of non-conservation areas potentially developed for ecotourism but both the locations and potential are not well documented.

Sources