Campeche Mexico
Rafael Alejandro Moreno Cardenas
Secretario de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales del estado de Campeche
Directora de Política Ambiental

The state of Campeche has a large indigenous population.  Of them, the group that is largest and that has the most significant history, is the Yucatec Mayas, who are concentrated in the oldest settlements in the northern area of the state.  This group lives on most of the Yucatan Peninsula, with 11% in Campeche, 76.25% in Yucatan and 12.73% in Quintana Roo.  Campeche also has a high concentration of Guatemalan indigenous refugees who live in refugee camps, and the southern part of the state has received migrants from other ethnic groups.  The 1990 census shows that there are 45 different languages represented in the state; among them, the most important are Ch'ol, Tzeltal, Kanjobal and Mam. Most of Campeche's territory is characterized by a subhumid climate and a dense tropical forest.  There is also a lowlands region with lakes and a riparian area.  The "milpa" system, which predominates in the state, requires a deep understanding of specific ecological systems, including the cycles of various plants and the rain cycle, as well as the fallow period required by its soils.  Hunting and gathering are supplementary subsistence activities.  The local natural resources are used as materials to build houses and for energy needs.  Together, these activities along with forestry and livestock activities, have had a devastating impact on the tropical forest, and attempts are being made to reverse the impact through sustainable development programs focused on reforestation and wildlife management.  Preservation policy has brought about the creation of various protected areas, among them the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve--notable for the number of indigenous migrants who live within the reserve's 723,185 hectares of forest and also for plans to develop ecological and archaeological tourism opportunities.[1]


Total Land Area
57,924 km²[2]
3 % of Mexico's Total Area
% of Land That Is Forest
73 %
Deforestation Trend


Population of State/Province
% of National Population
0.73 %
Urban vs. Rural Population
Ethnic Groups


State/Province GDP
MXN 269.54 Billion[7]
Annual Per Capita Income
MXN 957,623[8]
GDP Breakdown
Human Development Index
Main Exports

Forest Status

Original Forest Area
48,679 km²[13]
Current Forest Area
42,018 km²[14]
Total Forest Carbon
1,134 MtC
Major Vegetation Types
Forest Management
Deforestation Rates
Total Area Deforested
6,661 km²
Main Deforestation Drivers
Expansion of mechanized agriculture and establishment of pastures for livestock[20]


1. INEGI. Censo de Población y Vivienda 2010. Panorama sociodemográfico de Campeche. 2011.
2. Mexico FREL.
3. INEGI, 2013. Volumen y crecimiento. Población total por entidad federativa, 1895 a 2010.
4. INEGI, 2014. Perspectiva estadística Campeche.
5. EPRI, 2012. Overview of Subnational Programs to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) as Part of the Governors’ Climate and Forests Task Force, Palo Alto.
6. EPRI, 2012. Overview of Subnational Programs to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) as Part of the Governors’ Climate and Forests Task Force, Palo Alto.
7. Anuario estadístico. Campeche, Edición: 2012, Cobertura temporal: 2011 Desglose geográfico: Municipal, ISSN: 0188-8587 Formato: Electrónico.
8. Anuario estadístico. Campeche, Edición: 2012, Cobertura temporal: 2011Desglose geográfico: Municipal, ISSN: 0188-8587Formato: Electrónico.
9. calculated using values derived from INEGI, 2013.
10. calculated using values derived from INEGI, 2013,.
11. PNUD. El índice de desarrollo humano en México: cambios metodológicos e información para las entidades federativas. 2012.
12. INEGI.Perspectiva Estadística. Serie por Entidad Federativa. México.
Forest Status
13. Mexico FREL.
14. Mexico FREL.
15. SNIARN, 2011. El ambiente en números, Mexico D.F.
16. SEMARNATCAM Campeche. Areas naturales protegidas.
18. Argüelles Suárez et al., 2007. Programa Estratégico de Desarrollo Forestal Sustentable del Estado de Campeche (PEDFSC).
20. CONAFOR, 2016. Iniciativa de Reducción de Emisiones de México.