Among the states of the Brazilian Amazon, Amapá has more than 60% of its territory (143.453.70 km²) under some special modality of protection, there are 19 Conservation Units (CUs). The state has an important forestry economic sector, with extraction of wood and non-timber products (including açaí, brazil nuts and lianas). Mineral extraction consists of 91% of the export of the amapaense market, wood contributes 5% and only 1.5% are fruits, pulps and derivatives of plants.
The government has developed the Plan of Prevention and Control of Deforestation and Burning of the State of Amapá (PPCDAP), which aims to contain deforestation by means of 4 main types of actions: territorial planning, monitoring and control, promotion of sustainable economic activities and governance and institutional strengthening.
Currently, Amapá does not have an official regulatory framework on Climate Change, Environmental Services or REDD +. However, discussions are ongoing between government, civil society and academic institutions about creating a formal strategy for environmental services and REDD +. A Bill is being formulated with the objective of regulating strategies aimed at encouraging sustainability through Environmental Services Payments Programs.
Currently, the use of natural resources on a sustainable basis is one of the greatest challenges for the State Government. In this context, the State Forest of Amapá (FLOTA / AP) was created, with approximately 23,694 km ². The FLOTA / AP is a Sustainable Use Conservation Unit that promotes the orderly occupation of land and the use of natural resources in the face of principles of sustainable forest management with technical, social, economic and ecological approaches.
Further studies are needed for the elaboration of strategies for mitigation and compensation for GHG emissions (Greenhouse Gases) arising from anthropization processes in the areas of the State forests. In this context, the State Institute of Forests of Amapá (IEF / AP) concluded a work that quantified the carbon stocks in a fragment of Dense Forest of Terra Firma of FLOTA / AP. This study was carried out in collaboration with the National Institute of Amazonian Research (INPA) and the Center for Agroforestry Research (Embrapa Amapá).
Embrapa Amapá develops a research project together with other national and state institutions, including IEF / AP. The objective is to evaluate the environmental services provided by FLOTA / AP, with emphasis on module 4. The project completion forecast is mid-2013, the information collected will subsidize the implementation of a REDD + pilot project in the state of Amapá.
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No official study on the drivers and causes of deforestation for the State of Amapá exists, but information on deforestation trends is available both from state and federal monitoring programs. An Amapá State Secretariat of Environment (SEMA) report on deforestation over the 2005-2006 period reveals that 130 km² were deforested in the 2005-2006 period, with 89% of that deforestation occurring within 10 km of roads, in accordance with patterns observed elsewhere in the Amazon. The report also concludes that 84% of individual patches cleared in this period are relatively small, ranging from 0 to 10 ha. These small patches represented 31% of total deforestation, whereas patches ranging from 10 to 50 ha accounted for 33% of total deforestation (but only 14% of all patches cleared). One quarter of total deforestation was caused by clearing of only 15 large (100-500 ha) patches.
Considering that 81% of the deforestation in 2005-2006 occured in the savannahs (Cerrado) and in the Terra Firme Highland Forests combined and that 37% of this deforestation occurred in the cerrado, it is possible to assume that silviculture (eucalyptus) has been growing in the cerrado areas and may be responsible for deforestation patches over 100 ha. Sixty-three percent of deforestation occurred in Dense Highland Forests. Deforestation encompasses settlement projects and other small households in protected areas dedicated to subsistence agriculture. Eighteen percent of total deforestation took place within 31 settlement projects.
Meanwhile, PRODES detected an increase in annual deforestation from 2007 (7 km²) to 2008 (100 km²). Although this difference falls within the analysis’ margin of error (as described in the monitoring methodology), long-term monitoring by PRODES shows increasing annual deforestation rates before and after this period.