Mato Grosso Brazil
Pedro Taques
Coordenadora de Gestão do Sistema de REDD+ de Mato Grosso
Climate Change Coordinator, SEMA

The state of Mato Grosso is located in the Central-West region of Brazil, bordering the states of Pará and Amazonas to the north, Mato Grosso do Sul to the south, Goiás and Tocantins to the East and Rondônia and Bolivia to the West. It is the third largest state in the country by area, with an area of 903,000 square kilometers and a population of three million, two hundred thousand inhabitants. The state territory is composed of three biomes: Pantanal, Cerrado and Amazon. It contains a considerable number of protected areas, divided into 70 indigenous lands, 23 federal conservation units, 46 state conservation units and 35 municipal conservation units. In the three biomes, it is possible to find different types of vegetation, as the plant physiognomy varies from forest fragments to meadows, with great variation in their carbon stocks.

The state of Mato Grosso is one of the main producers of agricultural products in Brazil, including soybeans, corn, beef and cotton. Historically, it recorded high levels of deforestation until 2004. Since then Mato Grosso has achieved drastic reductions in deforestation in its territory.  According to PRODES / INPE data, the deforested area of 11,814 Km2, observed in 2004 fell to 1,341 km2 in 2017, equating to a reduction of 89%.

In order to face drivers of deforestation and forest degradation and reach the current deforestation level, Mato Grosso has since 2010 structured various jurisdictional strategic planning instruments to reduce deforestation and sustainable development. These instruments are already in various stages of implementation and comprise an organized framework of government sectoral programs, targets, monitoring and governance tools and an established funding system, most of which are created through participatory processes involving multiple stakeholders.

The Strategy to Produce, Preserve and Include (PCI), launched in 2015, aims to bring a vision for the low-carbon agricultural development of Mato Grosso by 2030. It is based on a set of 21 goals, integrating the agendas of public, private actors and civil society, and aimed at reconciling low-carbon farming with environmental conservation and socio-productive inclusion. The strategy includes targets for reducing deforestation that include the commitments of the Rio Branco Declaration. The role of the PCI Strategy is to articulate and monitor a broad set of initiatives aimed at reducing the emission of greenhouse gases in the State.

The Action Plan for Prevention and Control of Deforestation and Burning in Mato Grosso (PPCDQ) is more operational. Since 2006 it has had two phases of implementation (2006 to 2010 and 2011 to 2016) and was renamed in its third phase to the Plan of Action for Prevention and Control of Deforestation and Forest Fires of the State of Mato Grosso (PPCDIF / MT). It represents a set of strategic actions to prevent and control deforestation and forest fires in Mato Grosso structured in 4 action lines with the respective objectives: Territorial Planning, Monitoring and Control, Promotion of Sustainable Activities and Governance and Executive Management. In the context of PPCDIF and in addition to the federal instruments for monitoring deforestation in the Amazonian forest areas (PRODES and DETER-INPE), the State of Mato Grosso through the State Environmental Secretariat (SEMA) has a monitoring system and quantification of deforestation in the entire territory of Mato Grosso including forest and non-forest areas.

In addition to these initiatives, the main REDD + policy came with Law 9,878, in 2013, which established the State System of REDD + (SISREDD +) with the objective of promoting the progressive, consistent and sustained reduction of deforestation and other activities that emit gases of Greenhouse Effect with coverage in all the biomes of Mato Grosso, aiming to reach the goals of the PPCDQ, the State Policy of Climate Change, and the National Policy of Climate Change and other pertinent legislation. The law allowed for specific governance to be established with the establishment of the REDD + Governing Board and made it possible to obtain payment for results. Thus, it is through this policy that the program of payment by results was approved at the end of 2017; "REDD + for Pioneers" (REDD + for Early Movers - REM) funded by the German government (KfW) and the UK government (BEIS), totaling 178 million reals. REM / MT aims to reward and recognize the REDD pioneer climate change mitigation effort. Through a benefit distribution built between 2017 and 2018 between potential beneficiaries and civil society, REM aims to promote sustainable development for the benefit of farmers, indigenous communities and extractive communities. The work carried out in the framework of the establishment of the REM program has made it possible to establish an operational plan and must ensure the reduction of deforestation by command and control, the implementation of safeguards and monitoring instruments and the implementation of programs directed to direct beneficiaries. Several partnerships were established for this, articulating direct beneficiaries, but also civil society organizations such as ICV, IPAM, EII, ONFI, FEPOIMT, international technical cooperation such as GIZ or even federal institutions such as FUNAI.

Mato Grosso participates actively in the activities and work of the National Commission for REDD + (CONAREDD +), the Thematic Consultative Chambers (CCT) and in the process of building the National Information System on REDD + Safeguards, aiming at ensuring complementarity between the federal and state level and security implementation of public policies and programs.

Additional information can be found on the GCF Impact Platform.

Résumé

903,330km²
34.2%
+4.8%
2016 - 2017

Démographie

3.04 M
1.5%
Catégorie% 
Urbain82.00
Rural18.00
Groupe% 
Multi-ethnic52.00
White37.00
Black8.00
Indigenous2.00

Économie

BRL101.20 B
BRL19,644
Catégorie% 
Services54.48
Agriculture, Forestry28.60
16.89
0.796
Agricultural Products - soy, meat, corn and cotton

État de la forêt[a]

903,330km²
308,797km²
594,533km²
3,259M MtC
Catégoriekm² 
Forest422,967
Pastureland196,516
Other Land Uses123,459
Agriculture94,671
Secondary Vegetation65,717
Catégoriekm² 
Unprotected273,536
Protected40,464

Au cours des dernières décennies, la mise en œuvre de politiques publiques visant à occuper l’Amazonie a entraîné de profonds changements dans le développement du Mato Grosso. Les politiques ont attiré des milliers de familles de migrants de différentes régions du pays, et en particulier du sud et du sud-est du pays. Bon nombre de ces migrants cherchent à soutenir les moyens de subsistance grâce à la production agricole et au Mato Grosso, la majorité de la déforestation est directement ou indirectement associée à l’exploitation extensive du bétail et à l’agriculture.

Actuellement, l'État est le plus grand producteur de soja, de coton, de viande et de bois au Brésil. Bien que cette expansion économique ait généré de la richesse, elle a également eu un impact sur les différents types de végétation appartenant aux trois biomes présents dans l’État (Amazonie, Cerrado et Pantanal). La croissance de l'économie, alimentée par l'expansion continue des activités agricoles - qui a culminé à la fin des années 90 et au début des années 2000 - a donné à l'État des taux élevés de déforestation et de brûlage.

Après 2004, les taux de déforestation ont considérablement baissé, tant au Mato Grosso que dans d’autres États de l’Amazonie légale. Cela s'est fait par l'action conjointe de la mise en œuvre de politiques publiques innovantes telles que la PPCDA, au niveau fédéral, et PPCDQ / MT au niveau des États, également associée à la dynamique du marché des matières premières, comme le Accord sur le bétail. De nombreuses entreprises qui achètent ces produits ont demandé à leurs fournisseurs de «zéro déforestation» et de «zéro illégalité», mesurées au niveau des exploitations individuelles, afin d’éviter les risques de réputation. De cette manière, la possibilité d'une perte de marché a forcé l'adoption de progrès technologiques pour intensifier la production agricole et l'élevage, réduisant ainsi le besoin d'une nouvelle déforestation.

Notes

a.En raison des différentes approches méthodologiques et des années de référence, les champs de données sur l'état des forêts peuvent différer légèrement. Les sources de données pour chaque champ sont énumérées ci-dessous.

Sources

1.IBGE, 2010
2.Censo Demográfico IBGE, 2010
3.IBGE, 2015
4.IBGE, 2009
5.Mato Grosso em Números, 2010
6.Machado, R.B., M.B. Ramos Neto, P.G.P. Pereira, E.F. Caldas, D.A. Gonçalves, N.S. Santos, K.Tabor e M. Steininger. 2004. Estimativas de perda da área do Cerrado brasileiro. Relatório técnico não publicado. Conservação Internacional, Brasília, DF. link
7.Prodes INPE
8.MAPBIOMAS 2016