East Kalimantan Indonesia
Awang Faroek Ishak

East Kalimantan Province has jurisdiction over a land area of 127,346.99 km2 and a marine environment of 25,656 km2. It is the fourth largest province in Indonesia after Papua, Central Kalimantan and West Kalimantan. It was sparsely populated with 3.5 million people; half of which lived in rural villages.

The capital of East Kalimantan is Samarindam located on the 1,000km Mahakam River with 1,000 km. East Kalimantan is comprised of lakes and rivers which serve as transport corridors. The longest rivers in the province were Berau River in Berau District and Kendilo River in Paser District. The lakes and rivers play a significant role in shaping the socioeconomic and culture of the East Kalimantan people. Two biggest cities in the East Kalimantan are Samarinda and Balikpapan.

East Kalimantan is rich in natural resources with forest and mineral resources, such as oil, gas, coal, gold and other mineral deposit. East Kalimantan's tropical rainforests are home to a variety of flora and fauna. The size of East Kalimantan forest is 6.8 million hectares consisting of conservation forest (including Kutai National Park), protection and production forest. In addition, East Kalimantan also contains important ecosystems, such as mangroves and karst. Mahakam River Delta is the largest river delta in East Kalimantan dominated by mangrove, nipa palm and pandanus. Sangkulirang-Mangkalihat karst ecosystem is the largest karst ecosystem spanning from Berau to East Kutai Districts with the size of approximately 1.8 million hectares. Sangkulirang-Mangkalihat is an important ecosystem for the maintenance of water reservoir in Berau and East Kutai Districts. It also provides habitat for various species, particularly for orangutan which is currently considered as critically endangered species. The caves within the karst ecosystem contain pre-historic artifacts of high archaeological and cultural values for East Kalimantan people and Indonesia.

East Kalimantan faces serious challenges related to deforestation and forest degradation due to encroachment, illegal logging and mining. To deal with those challenges, as early as 2009, East Kalimantan formulated and declared its commitment for Green East Kalimantan. This was followed by several key initiatives, including efforts to replant and rehabilitate degraded areas through the ‘one man five trees’ program (2010) and declared a moratorium of new licenses of coal mining, palm oil and forest logging (2012). In 2014, East Kalimantan Province was a key signatory of the Rio Branco Declaration. Governor Awang Faroek Ishak has played an important leadership role in the Governor’s Climate and Forests Task Force (GCF), including chairing the GCF for period of 2016-2017 and hosting the 2017 GCF Annual Meeting in Balikpapan.

East Kalimantan has identified drivers of deforestation and forest degradation, set an emission reduction target, and developed a set of strategies to achieve the target. These activities have been reflected in a number of official documents including: the Five-year Development Plans (2008-2013 and 2013-2018), the Provincial Action Plan for Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (2012, updated in 2015), the Environmentally Sustainable Development Strategy (2011), the Provincial Action Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gases (2013; updated in 2018), the Green Economy Master Plan (2015), and the Climate Change Master Plan (2017). More recently, when the Government of Indonesia selected East Kalimantan as the jurisdiction to participate in the Forest Carbon Partnership Facilities (FCPF), East Kalimantan re-assessed the sources of carbon emissions, updated its emission reduction strategies and activities, and formulated them in the FCPF Emission Reduction Project Document (ERPD).

East Kalimantan Government has been implementing some of those emission reduction strategies but they faced challenges as the financial resources have been limited despite the contribution from the different donor agencies, local and international NGOs. In dealing with this challenge, the East Kalimantan Government led the development of the Green Growth Compact in 2015 as the way to engage broader stakeholders and to enhance resource sharing. The progress has been promising so far. A total of eight public-private-people partnerships have been forged and more partnerships are underway. East Kalimantan nevertheless still needs to identify new funding opportunities to get the emission reduction strategies implemented effectively.

Additional information can found on the GCF Impact Platform.

Summary

127,347km²
48.8%
-0.3%
2016 - 2017

Demographics

3.58 M
1.5%
Type% 
Rural55.00
Urban45.00
Group% 
Javanese29.54
Other27.01
Bugis18.26
Banjarese13.94
Kutai9.21
Dayak2.04

Economy

IDR501.87 T
IDR144.83 M
Type% 
Mining & Quarrying44.91
Processing Industry20.72
Construction8.26
Agriculture, Livestock, Forestry & Fisheries7.62
Trade, Hotel & Restaurant5.06
Transport & Communication3.47
0.756
Fossil fuels, chemicals, oils and fats, timber and timber products.

Forest Status[a]

114,191km²
62,200km²
51,991km²
934M MtC
Typekm² 
Secondary Dryland Forests40,181
Primary Dry Forest21,902
Secondary Mangrove Forest1,307
Secondary Swamp Forest1,111
Primary Mangrove Forest363
Primary Swamp Forest227
Typekm² 
Production Forest30,572
Limited Production Forest29,337
Protected forest18,576
Non-Forest Area - Others10,380
Conservation forest4,418
Conversion Production Forest1,213
Non-Forest Area - Estate crops329
  1. Overharvesting and illegal logging
  2. Forest encroachment for slash-and-burn agriculture and other forms of agriculture
  3. Land clearing for coal mining
  4. Forest fires
  5. Expansion of monoculture timber plantation, expansion of large scale agriculture (particularly oil palm)

Notes

a.Due to different methodological approaches and base years, Forest Status data fields may differ slightly. Data sources for each field are listed below.

Sources

1.BPS - Statistics Indonesia, 2010
2.Statistics Bureau, East Kalimantan in number, 2017
3.BPS,Kaltim dalam angka 2012
4.East Kalimantan Work Plan 2017, East Kalimantan Planning Agency
5.Kaltim dalam angka, BPS 2012
6.link
7.Ministry of Environment and Forestry 2018
8.Strategi dan Rencana Aksi (SRAP) implementasi REDD+ Kaltim hal 57-72