Papua province, with a total forest area of 31,687,680 ha (Provincial Spatial Planning 2012) is rich in endemic species and ecosystem diversity. The 2012 data from the Provincial Forest and Conservation Office of Papua statistics showed that during the period of 2003-2006 the annual deforestation rate was at 68,695 ha (17,174 ha/year) and the annual forest degradation rate was at 594,661 ha (148,665 ha/year). During the period of 2006-2009 the deforestation rate soared to 728,416 ha (182,104 ha/year) with the degradation rate increased to 645,684 ha(161,421 ha/year). Although deforestation and forest degradation rate keeps growing each year, the main factor of deforestation cannot be eliminated whether it has been caused by land conversion or illegal forest encroachment. Deforestation and forest degradation have indirectly contributed to the increasing greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions that have caused climate change (global warming).
Papua, as one of the forested provinces in Indonesia, has been explicitlyincluded in the national plan to address the emission reduction issue duringthe last few years through the Low Carbon Economic Development Task Force. The ideaof the establishment of the Task Force for the Low Carbon Economic Developmenttowards the future is expected to be able to provide intelligent and thoughtfulconsiderations to decision makers in Papua to assist them to oversee and implementthe acceleration of low carbon economic development. Policy and institutional instrumentsat subnational level should be prepared from the early stage to create and to materializeideas of sustainable low carbon economic development.
|Mining & Quarrying||52.72|
|Agriculture, Livestock, Forestry & Fisheries||11.72|
|Trade, Hotel & Restaurant||5.94|
|Transport & Communication||5.76|
|Upland Dense Humid Forest||--|
|Upland/Transition Dry Forest||--|
|Unprotected Forest Area||--|
|Conserved Forest Area||--|
|Fully Protected Forest Area||--|
|Sustainably Managed Forest Area||--|
Annual deforestation rates in descending order as follows: 77,051.14 ha/year in Production Forests, 29,853.24 ha/year in Limited Production Forests,27,864 ha/year in Converted Production Forests, 13,502.08 ha/year in Protected Forests, and 10,661.40 ha/year in Reserves/Conservation Areas. While it is normal that forest degradation occurs in production forests as they are designated to produce timber, the data also show massive forest encroachment in protected forests and conservation areas. The overlay with the map of conservation areas in the province shows conservation areas with the highest rate of degradation is Mamberamo Foja Reserve and Lorentz National Park that see average annual deforestation rates of 7,218.05 ha/year and 1,525.93 ha/year respectively. This proves that designating a given area as a conservation area does not limit accessibility to performing illegal logging in the area. Increasing demand for wood to support the development of public facilities and settlements due to establishment of new districts/villages is one of the drivers for the massive deforestation. In addition, easier access to areas that used to be isolated also contributes to the massive deforestation.
In Papua, deforestation only contributes 12.6% to net emission, while forest degradation contributes 64.1%. This shows that actions to prevent forest degradation must be given priority.