The territory of the State of Campeche has an area of 56,859 km2 of which 76.2% is still a mosaic of forests in relatively good condition. The state has the largest mangrove area (197,000 ha), in Mexico, which is equivalent to 30% of the national total. These forests and mangroves have the highest carbon storage capacities, above 100 MgCl / ha (Government of the State of Campeche, 2012b). Campeche has the largest area under protection (2,278,765.59 ha) through Protected Natural Areas (ANP's) in the Yucatan Peninsula, representing 40% of the state's surface. The good state of conservation and connectivity of the states of Campeche, Yucatan and Quintana Roo, with the forests of Guatemala and Belize in Central America, make the jungles of Campeche one of the areas for the survival of threatened and endangered species with high spatial requirements such as felines (jaguar and puma), or that perform local "migrations" (such as birds or butterflies). Recent studies in Mexico infer that the forests of Campeche probably maintain the largest populations of species such as the jaguar (Panthera onca), the tapir (Tapirus bairdii), the white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), the howler monkey (Alouatta spp) , the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), the elegant eagle (Spizaetus ornatus), the king vulture (Sarcoramphus papa), the ocellated turkey (Meleagris ocellata) and the snout (Crax rubra) (Campeche State Government, 2012b).
Most of Campeche's territory is characterized by a subhumid climate and a dense tropical forest. There is also a lowlands region with lakes and a riparian area. The "milpa" system, which predominates in the state, requires a deep understanding of specific ecological systems, including the cycles of various plants and the rain cycle, as well as the fallow period required by its soils. Hunting and gathering are supplementary subsistence activities. The local natural resources are used as materials to build houses and for energy needs. Together, these activities along with forestry and livestock activities, have had a devastating impact on the tropical forest, and attempts are being made to reverse the impact through sustainable development programs focused on reforestation and wildlife management. The State of Campeche faces a great challenge in the face of the potential effects of climate change and of the phenomena of deforestation and forest degradation. Preservation policy has brought about the creation of various protected areas, among them the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve--notable for the number of indigenous migrants who live within the reserve's 723,185 hectares of forest and also for plans to develop ecological and archaeological tourism opportunities.