Tabasco is located in the southeast region of the country, bounded on the north by the Gulf of Mexico (Atlantic Ocean), on the east by Campeche, on the southeast by Guatemala, on the south by Chiapas and on the west by Veracruz. According to the Political Constitution of Tabasco, the state is integrated by 17 municipalities, divided into two major regions and five subregions according to their geographical characteristics. In terms of area, Huimanguillo is the largest municipality and Paradise is the smallest; whereas according to the number of inhabitants, the most populated municipality is Centro and the least populated is Emiliano Zapata.
The state of Tabasco represents 1.26% of the country's area. By 2015, the state of Tabasco was divided into 17 municipalities. 95.5% of the surface of the state presents a warm humid climate, the remaining 4.5% has a subhumid climate toward the eastern part of the state. The average state rainfall is 2,550 mm annually, rainfall occurs throughout the year and is more abundant in the months of June through October.
The hot humid climate favors the cultivation of banana, papaya, orange, lemon, coconut, cocoa, rice, maize and pepper, among others. The state of Tabasco has a large area of natural pastures, which favors the exploitation of cattle through the system of free grazing or extensive livestock. Due to their hardiness and tolerance to high temperatures, Zebu cattle are best adapted to the tropical climate of the state. Raising cattle is mainly aimed at obtaining meat, although dairy production is also important in the state.
Additional information can be found on the GCF Impact Platform.
According to the Baseline for Tabasco for the conservation of carbon stocks, sustainable forest management and increase in carbon stocks developed by the Center for Global Change for Sustainability of the Southeast and the Government of the State of Tabasco, one of the main factors that influenced the processes of degradation and deforestation of the forests were the public policies that encouraged the clearing of the forests to transform them into agricultural lands and pastures. Dr. Fernando Tudela Abad, in 1989, carried out an analysis on the expansion of livestock activity in Tabasco between 1960 and 1975, concluding that there were more than 1 million head of cattle for 1970, which was achieved with an aggressive plan to clear the forests of the State. By 1980 more than half of the state surface had been converted into grasslands.
Among the main consequences of deforestation in Tabasco, which were already evident at that time, are: loss of biological wealth (estimated up to 300 plant species per hectare), emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere and reduction in the capacity of capture, modifications in the climatic regime, increase of the run-off (flow of surface water), and transformations in the soil like loss of nutrients, erosion, compaction, salinization, and flooding in the plains.
In the last decade the processes of forest deforestation have increased, mainly because Tabasco, at the national level, is one of the cases of greater degradation and deforestation. In the State, a fragmented landscape can be observed, with remains of forest, which are subject to the influence of livestock and agricultural activities, social conflicts, new human settlements, problems of land tenure, extraction of illegal timber products, pests and forest diseases, fires, creation of new roads, as well as the uses and customs.
The current trends of deforestation and degradation are minor, since the greatest transformation in the State was carried out in the 1960s. Currently there is little natural forest surface remaining, which is not easily accessible, and is located in flood-prone areas. There has been a strong increase in forestry activities and there is positive data regarding the gain of forest areas.