Loreto Peru
Fernando Meléndez Celis
Regional Planning, Budget and Territorial Planning Manager
Assistant Manager of Planning and Territorial Zoning

Loreto is the largest and most diverse region in Peru, with an area of 36,885,195.35 ha, which represents 28.7% of the national territory and 51% of the Peruvian Amazon.The region is home to extraordinary biological and cultural diversity, and it is also the department with the greatest forest cover in the country. Despite this, between 2001 and 2015  the region lost 341,845 hectares of forest according to national statistics. This places the region second, after the department of San Martin (with 382,058.00 hectares), for greatest forest loss in Peru during that time period. Data from the National Program for the Conservation of Forests and Climate Change Mitigation (PNBCC - MINAM), shows the trend of deforestation in Loreto is increasing, causing concern about the proper management of the region’s forests. To reverse this trend, the regional government has committed to develop strategies that are oriented towards the conservation of forests.
As part of these efforts, the Region has placed more than 13 million hectares of forests under some form of regional conservation, including Regional Conservation Areas, Conservation Concessions and Ecotourism,and conservation of headwaters of watersheds.
Through Regional Ordinance N ° 012-2015-GRL-CR, Loreto established the Regional Environmental Authority of Loreto (ARA LORETO) as a line agency dependent on the General Management of the Government Regional of Loreto. The ARA is the governing body responsible for defining policies, organizing, directing, controlling, monitoring, regulating and exercising functions in environmental matters, management and conservation of natural resources, promotion of environmental services and sustainable management of flora and fauna.The ARA operate with a territorial and ecosystem-centered approach.The ARA is led by a manager who oversee four Executive Directorates: the Executive Directorate of Environmental Management; the Executive Directorate of Conservation and Biological Diversity, the Executive Directorate of Forestry and Wildlife; and the Executive Directorate of Spatial Planning and Spatial Data.
The Executive Directorate of Conservation and Biological Diversity is the institution within Loreto’s ARA responsible for contributing to the sustainable development through the design and implementation of public policies, plans, programs, projects and strategies of management of the areas of regional conservation and the environmental services they provide, prioritizing their importance for the conservation and sustainable use of regional biological diversity.
Loreto has also prioritized the development and implementation of Regional Conservation Areas (ACRs for their acronym in Spanish) to address deforestation.The administration of the ACRs is framed by the guiding principles established in the Strategy for the Management of the Loreto ACRs, whichuses a co-management model to manage the biological, physical and social components of natural resources.It is through the principle ofCo-Management that synergies are established with the communities located in buffer zones of ACRs.Loreto recognizesthe important role of these communities in the conservation of the forests and natural resources of the ACRs and their communal territories. Currently in the Loreto Region there are four established Regional Conservation Areas, totaling an area of 2'199,885.09 hectares.
In the future, the challenge is to formulate and implement a holistic low-carbon development strategy that balances socioeconomic needs and forest conservation using a landscape approach.

Additional information can be found on the GCF Impact Platform.

Résumé

368,799km²
95.2%
+17.4%
2015 - 2016

Démographie

1.04 M
3.4%
Type% 
Urban66.00
Rural34.00
Group 
Other54,426
Kukama - kukamiria50,000
Quechua38,500
Chayahuita20,000
Achuar10,500
Awajun8,000

Économie

PEN8.44 M
PEN7,144
Type% 
Other sectors35.30
Public Administration and Defense25.80
Commerce19.50
Agriculture, Livestock, Hunting and Forestry10.20
Oil and Mining9.20
0.398
Wood and papers, metalworking, iron and steel, fishing, agrochemicals

État de la forêt[a]

354,362km²
350,932km²
3,430km²
3,585M MtC
Typekm² 
Humid low hills Forests202,113
Swamps51,025
Aguajales29,299
Humid Forest of Low Terraces21,988
Moist Forest of Mendric Plains17,561
Others13,234
Humid Mountain Forest10,908
Wet Forest of Terraces Stockings9,439
Humid High Hills Forests8,193
Humid Forest of High Terraces5,003
Typekm² 
National Protected Areas68,343
Native titled communities64,846
Regional Conservation Areas21,999
Timber forest concessions21,910
Concessions for conservation2,697
Ecotourism concessions329
Other forest concessions76
Private Conservation Areas - ACP10

There are no in-depth studies on the causes of deforestation in Loreto. The Strategic Environmental Study of the regional development plan notes that "deforestation originates due to various causes such as the exploitation of wood, the construction of roads and the conversion of forest areas to areas of agricultural activity " (DAR, 2015). The Loreto Sostenible 2021 study (Dourojeanni, 2013), also notes that "the highest rates of deforestation are concentrated in the two areas served by roads and around Iquitos." The first area is the one that corresponds to "area of high hills, which is crossed by the road that arrives to Yurimaguas from Tarapoto, the large plantations of oil palm established with use of machinery". The second area is the one influenced by "the construction of the Iquitos-Nauta highway, in terrains with sandy-quartz soils, which has led to the extension of the agricultural occupation of this area up to 20 km on each side (Dourojeanni, 2013). The report also explains that "important extensions have also been deforested in recent years for agricultural purposes in the provinces of Alto Amazonas, Ramón Castilla and Maynas." It is important to note also that Dourojeannu (2013) states that the main problem is not deforestation in Loreto, but rather degradation due to selective logging.  Currently the extent of degradation in Loreto is difficult to measure.

Notes

a.En raison des différentes approches méthodologiques et des années de référence, les champs de données sur l'état des forêts peuvent différer légèrement. Les sources de données pour chaque champ sont énumérées ci-dessous.

Sources

1.(INEI, 2016) link
2.(BCRP, 2016) link
3.(INEI, 2016) link
4.(BCRP, 2016) link
5.(PNUD, S/F) link
6.(PROMPERÚ, 2016) link
7.PNCB link
8.Geobosques 2016
9.Peru FREL
10.Secretaría del Convenio sobre la Diversidad Biológica (https://www.cbd.int/doc/nbsap/sbsap/pe-sbsap-loreto-es.pdf)