Complementary Law 140 of 8/12/2011- provides for the protection of outstanding natural landscapes, protection of the environment, pollution control in any form and the preservation of forests, fauna and flora.
Law nr. 11.284/2006 – Establishes the Federal law for the management of public forests
Law nr. 12.727/2012 – Creates the New Brazilian Forest Code
Law nr 12.651/2012- Revised national Forest Code which guides the management over forest resources in Brazil and delegates the mapping and registering of all rural properties to the states.
Decree 7.378/2010 - approves the macro ecological and economic zoning for the amazon
Conama Resolution 237/97 Establishes definitions on Environmental Licensing, and activities that require Environmental Licensing
Brazil has developed some important plans and policies to address deforestation and climate change, the most significant being the National Policy on Climate Change and the Action Plan for Prevention and Control of the Legal Amazon Deforestation. The National Policy on Climate Change, established in 2009, has objectives of reducing deforestation in all biomes and increasing the use of renewable energy and biofuels, among other things. The Policy created guidelines for meeting it's objectives including an emission reduction target for Brazil (36.1% - 38.9% by 2020), sectoral plans for mitigation and adaptation and identifies instruments and financial mechanisms to help achieve the goals.
The National Policy also establishes a deforestation reduction target for the Amazon biome of 80% by 2020 from the average deforestation rate between 1996-2005 and a 40% reduction from the average deforestation rate between 1999-2008 for the Cerrado biome.
The National Policy is regulated by Law Decree 7,390/2010 which outlines five sector-specific mitigation action plans, among other things:
- Action Plan for Prevention and Control of Deforestation in the Legal Amazon (PPCDAm)
- Action Plan for Prevention and Control of Deforestation and Forest Fires in the Cerrado (PPCerrado)
- Decennial Plan for Energy Expansion (PDE)
- Plan for consolidation of Low Carbon Agriculture (ABC Plan)
- Plan for Reducing Emissions from the Steel Sector
The PPCDAm and PPCerrado are the primary strategies that will help Brazil reach the objectives of its National Policy. Both Plans are composed of a set of integrated actions, that include territorial and tenure planning, monitoring and environmental control and fostering sustainable activities.
At the subnational level, all Brazilian Amazon states have completed their plans for control and prevention of deforestation in alignment with the guidelines established by the National Policy. These plans can be found on the state pages. The completion of a state plan to address deforestation is one of the requirements for a seat on the board of the Amazon Fund.
Brazil launched a National Strategy for REDD + (ENREDD +) in 2015 (Ordinance 370). It formalizes the strategy to reduce deforestation by 2020 under the UNFCCC, focusing on coordinated actions to prevent and control deforestation and forest degradation, promote forest restoration and the promotion of sustainable development. In 2015 the federal government launched a REDD+ commision (CONAREDD, created by Decree No. 8,576 / 2015) which has representatives from the national government, indigenous peoples, civil society, and two representatives from GCF member states. To date CONAREDD has convened for two meetings.
any of the states have also been developing state policies on climate change and REDD+.
Brazil has also submitted their iNDC under the UNFCCC (2015) with a commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 37% below 2005 levels by 2025 and 43% below 2005 levels by 2030. The forest component of this ambitious commitment includes: a) strengthening and enforcing the implementation of the Forest Code, at federal, state and municipal levels; b) strengthening policies and measures with a view to achieve, in the Brazilian Amazon, zero illegal deforestation by 2030 and compensate for greenhouse gas emissions from legal suppression of vegetation by 2030; c) restoring and reforesting 12 million hectares of forests by 2030, for multiple purposes; d) enhancing sustainable native forest management systems, through georeferencing and tracking systems applicable to native forest management, with a view to curb illegal and unsustainable practices.
It has also submitted a Forest Reference Emission Level (FREL) to the convention as well as a Summary of information on how the Cancun safeguards were addressed and respected by Brazil throughout the implementation of actions to reduceemissions from deforestation in the Amazon biomebetween 2006 and 2010.
Brazilian Legislation Database legislacao.planalto.gov.br