Total Land Area [1]
331,937 km² 11.9 % Forest
Deforestation Trend
1.5 % 2017
Original Forest Area
142,597 km²
Current Forest Area
39,566 km² 0.277 % of Global Total
Total Area Deforested
103,031 km²
Total Forest Carbon
239 M MtC 0.150 % of Global Total

The State of Maranhão has surface areas of the order of 331 thousand km², being the eighth largest state in Brazil and the second in the Northeast in territorial extension. The State has 217 municipalities and two Metropolitan Regions: Greater São Luis and Southwest Maranhense. The Maranhão portion of Amazonia Legal covers an area equivalent to 80% of the territorial area of the State, about 264,000 km². In this area are located 188 municipalities of Maranhão.

The State has five geographical meso-regions, subdivided into 21 geographic microregions, where 217 municipalities are located. The municipal boundaries were established based on IBGE Resolution No. 05 of October 10, 2002.

Deforestation is concentrated in an area called the 'Deforestation Arc' , passing through Tocantins, part of Pará and Mato Grosso, the entire state of Rondônia, the south of the Amazonas arriving at Acre. According to the Forest Code, the region delimited by the Legal Amazon rules on the use of rural property, as properties within the Legal Amazon are obliged to maintain 80% of the area as legal reserve in the Amazon Biome and 35% in the Cerrado biome. Those located properties outside the limits of the Legal Amazon need to conserve 20% of the property as reservation. The territory of Maranhão consists of the biomes Amazônia, Cerrado and Caatinga bomes, which gives it great biological and environmental diversity.

Additional information can be found on the GCF Impact Platform.

Rafael Ribeiro
Secretary of Environment
Renato Foicinha
Environmental Analyst, SEMA
Flávio Dino de Castro e Costa
Population of State/Province [2]
7,010,000 3.4 % of National Population
Urban vs. Rural Population [3]
Urban 63.00 %
Rural 36.00 %
Ethnic Groups [4]
Multi-ethnic 66.52 %
White 22.13 %
Black 9.69 %
Other 1.13 %
Indigenous 0.54 %
State/Province GDP [5]
BRL 78,470,000,000
Annual Per Capita Income [6]
BRL 7,164
Human Development Index [7]
GDP Breakdown [8]
Services 69.60 %
Industry 19.00 %
Agriculture, Forestry 11.40 %
Main Exports [9]
Minério de ferro, alumínio, alumina, soja, ferrogusa
Forest Status (1)
Major Vegetation Types [10]
Other Land Uses 141,510 km²
Pastureland 56,202 km²
Forest 33,946 km²
Secondary Vegetation 30,014 km²
Agriculture 530 km²
Forest Management
Deforestation Rates [11]
Drivers of Deforestation

Large-scale livestock, Large-scale agriculture, Smallholder Agriculture

(1) Due to different methodological approaches and base years, Forest Status data fields may differ slightly. Data sources for each field are listed below.
Instituto Maranhense de Estudos Socioeconômicos e Cartográficos
Instituto Maranhense de Estudos Socioeconômicos e Cartográficos
TerraClass 2014