Total Land Area [1]
1,247,597 km² 69.1 % Forest
Deforestation Trend
18.7 % 2017
Original Forest Area [2]
1,253,165 km²
Current Forest Area [3]
861,816 km² 6.032 % of Global Total
Total Area Deforested
391,349 km²
Total Forest Carbon
10,467 M MtC 6.584 % of Global Total

The state of Pará is the second largest Brazilian state in size, with the same land areas as Portugal, Spain, Italy, United Kingdom, Belgium, Holland and Denmark combined. It is also is home to the second largest area of remaining forest in the Legal Amazon, with almost 900,000 km² of forests and enormous biodiversity.

Pará is the state that perhaps best synthesizes the various activities that are carried out in the Amazon: extractivism, logging, large scale monoculture, livestock, mining, road opening, hydroelectric. Despite the evolution of economic activities and infrastructure in the forest areas, Pará has been progressively reducing its deforestation rates since 2009.

Part of the success of this reduction is due to public policies launched in the State. Pará has developed its ecological and economic zoning plan (EEZ), an essential environmental management solution for land use planning. In addition, the State also has the Plan for Prevention, Control and Alternatives to Deforestation (PPCAD) which advances the basic premise that Command and Control measures alone are not enough for the State to address deforestation. Only a creation of sustainable economic alternatives is capable of sustaining a reduction of deforestation rates and contributing to the maintenance of forest areas.

Believing that it is possible to grow economically without having to reproduce the historical model of environmental degradation, the State has achieved important objectives within the scope of the Green Municipalities Program.The Green Municipalities Program is a partnerships which seeks to establish an economic model that combines conservation and production in a model of low emissions rural development. Based on the partnership between public agencies, producer groups, and civil society, the Green Municipalities program has become a model of sustainable action that brings improvements in the quality of life of the people of Pará. More recently, in 2017, the state launched the Sustainable Municipalities program which is the realization on-the-ground of "Sustainable Pará".Sustainable Para establishes strategic guidelines in the social scope (Pará Social), environmental (Pará Ambiental) and economic (Pará 2030) to promote sustainable development.

The Government of the State of Pará understands that there is still a long way to go and continuous progress towards regulatory frameworks and public policies for Climate Change and Environmental Services. An example of this is a reopening of the Para Forum of Climate Change, currently undergoing an overhaul.

Additional information can be found on the GCF Impact Platform.

Lilian Haber
Deputy Secretary of Water Resources & Climate
José Mauro de Lima O'de Almeida
Secretary of Environment
Helder Barbalho
Population of State/Province [4]
7,581,051 3.7 % of National Population
Urban vs. Rural Population [5]
Urban 68.48 %
Rural 31.52 %
Ethnic Groups [6]
Multi-ethnic 72.60 %
White 21.90 %
Black 5.00 %
Indigenous 0.40 %
Other 0.10 %
State/Province GDP [7]
BRL 57
Annual Per Capita Income [8]
BRL 7,993
Human Development Index [9]
GDP Breakdown [10]
Services 56.60 %
Industry 36.30 %
Agriculture, Forestry 0.00 %
Mining 0.00 %
Main Exports [11]
Iron ore, aluminum, copper ore, manganese ore, beef, wood, black pepper, palm
Forest Status (1)
Major Vegetation Types [12]
Forest 871,654 km²
Other Land Uses 167,751 km²
Pastureland 141,442 km²
Secondary Vegetation 63,601 km²
Agriculture 3,191 km²
Forest Management
Unprotected 472,179 km²
Protected 394,051 km²
Deforestation Rates [13]
Drivers of Deforestation

The major drivers of deforestation are cattle ranching, large-scale agriculture, and logging; relatively more minor drivers include mining, urban areas, and infrastructure (e.g., dams). Large cattle ranches account for 60% of all deforestation, whereas smallholder lands account for another 30%. Four percent of deforested area is associated with logging and 3% only is directly associated with professional and high productivity agriculture.

In the last six years, Pará has experienced fluctuations in its rate of deforestation, from 1,741 km² in 2012 to 2,992 km² in 2016. On the other hand, in the year 2017, there was a reduction of 19% (2,413 km²).

(1) Due to different methodological approaches and base years, Forest Status data fields may differ slightly. Data sources for each field are listed below.
Machado, R.B., M.B. Ramos Neto, P.G.P. Pereira, E.F. Caldas, D.A. Gonçalves, N.S. Santos, K. Tabor e M. Steininger. 2004. Estimativas de perda da área do Cerrado brasileiro. Relatório técnico não publicado. Conservação Internacional, Brasília, DF.
IBGE, 2010
IBGE, 2010
IBGE, 2008
IBGE, 2008
IBGE, 2010
SEDECT, 2010
TerraClass 2014