Central Kalimantan Indonesia
Total Land Area [1]
153,559 km² 52.2 % Forest
Deforestation Trend
0.3 % 2017
Original Forest Area [2]
110,328 km²
Current Forest Area
80,200 km² 0.561 % of Global Total
Total Area Deforested
30,128 km²
Total Forest Carbon
1,131 M MtC 0.711 % of Global Total

Spanning 153,564 km², Central Kalimantan is Indonesia’s third largest province. Central Kalimantan became Indonesia’s fifth full member of the GCF when it joined in 2010. With just 2.2 million inhabitants, population density is low. The province is sub-divided into 13 Districts with 1572 urban and rural villages. Overall 67% of the population live in rural areas, where villages tend to be distributed along the banks of the 11 large rivers which flow from the central mountains to the Java Sea. The largest ethnic group are the indigenous Dayaks, but there are significant numbers of official and economic migrants from Java, Bali and Sulawesi in both rural and urban settlements. Poverty remains a major issue particularly in rural areas because of the difficulty and cost of transportation and communication and the impact that this has on basic human services delivery. Education and health services in areas outside the provincial capital, Palangkaraya, are poor and this is reflected in the province’s Human Development Index (HDI).

Despite its low population density, Central Kalimantan has suffered serious and widespread environmental degradation. From 1996 to 1999 it was the site of the so-called “Mega Rice” project which cleared one million hectares of peat swamp forests and constructed 4000 km of canals to drain the peat. The lingering legacy of this project has been persistent peat drainage in the dry season, leading to high GHG emissionsfrom oxidation and compounded by annual dry season fires. Central Kalimantan has about 3 million hectares of peat soils, equaling those West, East and South Kalimantan combined. The extent of the impact of the clearing of swamp forests for agriculture and estate crops is demonstrated by official forest cover figures, which show only 865,000 ha of swamp forest remaining compared to 1.4 million ha of secondary forest and a further 1.1 million ha of degraded shrubland. Of the original area of peatlands, 80% is under threat from seasonal fire and/or oxidation. Restoration of the damaged peat ecosystems is a high priority for the provincial government and is also identified as a priority via Presidential Decree (2016).

Management of the province’s remaining forests is subject to on-going discussion and planning. Although 12.6 million ha remain within the national forest estate, a further 2.8 million ha are currently zoned in other land use categories, according to the provincial spatial plan. Proposed changes to the spatial zoning plan would greatly increase the proportion of these standing forests within the Protection Forest category, since their role in hydrologic regulation and reduced soil carbon emissions are regarded as critical. For over a decade, Central Kalimantan has been pursuing a low carbon development strategy in line with national policies. In 2010, Central Kalimantan was chosen to serve as a pilot Province for REDD+ development under an agreement between Norway and Indonesia to reduce deforestation. In 2005, the provincial government established a “green” policy framework which evolved in 2010 to a vision of Central Kalimantan as a “Green and Clean Province”. The province is also the site for the Australia-Indonesia Forest Carbon Partnership REDD+ Demonstration Project which aims to reduce emissions on 135,000 ha of degraded peatlands. It also hosts a number of other private investment REDD+ Projects and is a participant in the Heart of Borneo trans-boundary conservation project.

Additional information can be found on the GCF Impact Platform.

Fahrizal Fitri
Provincial Secretary
Rawing Rambang Donald Arthemas
Head of Plantation Agency
Sugianto Sabran
Population of State/Province [3]
2,202,599 0.9 % of National Population
Urban vs. Rural Population [4]
Rural 66.54 %
Urban 33.46 %
Ethnic Groups
Banjarese 24.00 %
Other 22.00 %
Javanese 18.00 %
Ngaju 18.00 %
Dayak 10.00 %
Bakumpai 8.00 %
State/Province GDP [5]
IDR 126,200,000,000,000
Annual Per Capita Income [6]
IDR 48,442,060
Human Development Index [7]
GDP Breakdown [8]
Agriculture, Livestock, Forestry & Fisheries 28.50 %
Trade, Hotel & Restaurant 20.80 %
Services 13.40 %
Mining & Quarrying 9.60 %
Transport & Communication 8.20 %
Processing Industry 7.40 %
Construction 5.50 %
Main Exports [9]
Oils and fats, timber and timber products, ore, steel and coal.
Forest Status (1)
Major Vegetation Types
Secondary Dryland Forests 44,062 km²
Shrubs 31,424 km²
Crops 19,939 km²
Secondary Swamp Forest 18,019 km²
Plantation 17,315 km²
Primary Dry Forest 10,880 km²
Gardens / Plantations 1,924 km²
Primary Swamp Forest 396 km²
Secondary Mangrove Forest 247 km²
Primary Mangrove Forest 16 km²
Savannah 2 km²
Forest Management
Production Forest 38,622 km²
Limited Production Forest 32,890 km²
Conversion Production Forest 25,210 km²
Conservation Areas 15,889 km²
Protected forest 13,198 km²
Deforestation Rates [10]
Drivers of Deforestation

The main drivers of deforestation are large-scale permanent cultivation (primarily palm oil and timber plantations) and smallholder agriculture. Fire is also an important driver of forest degradation in the province.

(1) Due to different methodological approaches and base years, Forest Status data fields may differ slightly. Data sources for each field are listed below.
2014, Strategi Daerah REDD+ Kalimantan Tengah
BPS,Kalteng dalam angka 2014
BPS,Kalteng dalam angka 2012
BPS, 2016
BPS,Kalteng dalam angka 2012
BPS,Kalteng dalam angka 2012
Ministry of Environment and Forestry 2018