North Kalimantan Indonesia
Total Land Area
68,996 km² 85.4 % Forest
Deforestation Trend
33.7 % 2017
Original Forest Area [1]
65,935 km²
Current Forest Area
58,900 km² 0.412 % of Global Total
Total Area Deforested
7,035 km²
Total Forest Carbon
873 M MtC 0.549 % of Global Total

The establishment through Law No. 20 of 2012 dated November 16, 2012, the province of North Kalimantan is the youngest and the northernmost province in Kalimantan, which has a land area of 75,467.70 km² and a population of 666,333. The province has one large city (Tarakan) and is divided into four districts: Nunukan, Malinau, Tana Tidung and Bulungan. The province has a population growth rate of 3.8% and population density of 8.83 persons / km² (BPS Katara, 2017). The capital of North Kalimantan Province is located in Tanjung Selor, in Bulungan District.

North Kalimantan Province lies in a position between 114ᵒ35'22 "- 118ᵒ03'00" East Longitude and between 1ᵒ21'36 "- 4ᵒ24'55" North Latitude. Administratively, the province of North Kalimantan is bordered to the North by Malaysia (Sabah), to the east by the Sulawesi sea, to the south by East Kalimantan province, and the west by Malaysia (Sarawak).

Geographicall the province of North Borneo is strategically located along one of Indonesia's major shipping routes, linking with maritime routes to Malaysia, the Philippines, Brunei Darussalam, Singapore and other Asia Pacific countries. This strategic location gives the province opportunities to develop economically through export-import activities with other countries in the region.

Land use in North Kalimantan Province is dominated by forests, with an area of 6,440,254 ha or about 90.06% of the total area. The agricultural area is spread around 1.55% or 110,751 ha from the total area. State forest land use dominates across districts, but most are in the Malinau District. The geographical condition of the province, which is dominated by mountains and hills with a steep slope, is mostly used as a protected forest. The use of settlement land is only 19,090 Ha or 0.27% of the total area of the province, with the highest settlement land in Nunukan District.

Forests have three main functions, namely protection functions, conservation, and production functions. State forests are set by the government through Law no. 41 of 1999 on Forestry based on the three main functions as Hutan Lindung (HL), Conservation Forest (HK) which is divided into Natural Conservation Area (KSA) and Nature Conservation Area (KPA), and Production Forest which is divided into Permanent Production Forest ), Limited Production Forest (HPT), and Conversion Production Forest (HPK).

More information can be found on the GCF Impact Platform.

Head of Forestry Agency
Edy Suharto S. Sos, MT
Head of Provincial Environment Agency
Dr. H. Irianto Lambrie
Population of State/Province [2]
666,333 0.3 % of National Population
Urban vs. Rural Population
Rural 69.20 %
Urban 30.80 %
Ethnic Groups
Javanese 35.00 %
Bugis 23.00 %
Dayak 17.00 %
Banjarese 14.00 %
Kutai 9.00 %
Other 2.00 %
State/Province GDP
IDR 77,041,000,000,000
Annual Per Capita Income [3]
IDR 115,619,367
Human Development Index [4]
GDP Breakdown
Trade, Hotel & Restaurant 27.00 %
Transport & Communication 13.40 %
Construction 13.20 %
Agriculture, Livestock, Forestry & Fisheries 12.20 %
Mining & Quarrying 11.59 %
Processing Industry 11.40 %
Services 11.21 %
Main Exports
Mining, manufactured goods, and commodities
Forest Status (1)
Major Vegetation Types [5]
Primary Dry Forest 40,466 km²
Secondary Dryland Forests 16,466 km²
Secondary Swamp Forest 2,627 km²
Agriculture Dry land mixed 2,260 km²
Shrubs 1,893 km²
Secondary Mangrove Forest 1,579 km²
Tambak 1,335 km²
Rice fields 171 km²
Plantation 98 km²
Swamp 74 km²
Settlement 51 km²
Primary Swamp Forest 13 km²
Forest Management [6]
Limited Production Forest 22,726 km²
Non-Forest Area - Others 13,639 km²
Protected forest 10,652 km²
Production Forest 10,512 km²
Convertible production forest 535 km²
Deforestation Rates [7]
Drivers of Deforestation [8]

There are a diversity of drivers of deforestation in N Kalimantan, the majority of which are caused by human activities. Deforestation is widely caused by land conversion either for settlements or plantations. Often the clearing forested land is related to the development of plantation industry, mining, traditional farming by the community etc. Based on research (Cifor, The 3rd Asia-Pacific Rainforest Summit Live 2016) the leading cause of deforestation is the development of plantation industry and forest and land fires.

(1) Due to different methodological approaches and base years, Forest Status data fields may differ slightly. Data sources for each field are listed below.
BPS 2017
BPS 2017
BPS 2017
Draft RPJMD Provinsi Kalimantan Utara tahun 2016-2021
Draft RPJMD Provinsi Kalimantan Utara 2016-2021
Ministry of Environment and Forestry 2018
Cifor, The 3rd Asia-Pacific Rainforest Summit Live 2016