Total Land Area [1]
368,799 km² 95.2 % Forest
Deforestation Trend
17.4 % 2016
Original Forest Area [2]
354,362 km²
Current Forest Area [3]
350,932 km² 2.456 % of Global Total
Total Area Deforested
3,430 km²
Total Forest Carbon
3,585 M MtC 2.255 % of Global Total

Loreto is the largest and most diverse region in Peru, with an area of 36,885,195.35 ha, which represents 28.7% of the national territory and 51% of the Peruvian Amazon.The region is home to extraordinary biological and cultural diversity, and it is also the department with the greatest forest cover in the country. Despite this, between 2001 and 2015 the region lost 341,845 hectares of forest according to national statistics. This places the region second, after the department of San Martin (with 382,058.00 hectares), for greatest forest loss in Peru during that time period. Data from the National Program for the Conservation of Forests and Climate Change Mitigation (PNBCC - MINAM), shows the trend of deforestation in Loreto is increasing, causing concern about the proper management of the region’s forests. To reverse this trend, the regional government has committed to develop strategies that are oriented towards the conservation of forests.

As part of these efforts, the Region has placed more than 13 million hectares of forests under some form of regional conservation, including Regional Conservation Areas, Conservation Concessions and Ecotourism,and conservation of headwaters of watersheds.

Through Regional Ordinance N ° 012-2015-GRL-CR, Loreto established the Regional Environmental Authority of Loreto (ARA LORETO) as a line agency dependent on the General Management of the Government Regional of Loreto. The ARA is the governing body responsible for defining policies, organizing, directing, controlling, monitoring, regulating and exercising functions in environmental matters, management and conservation of natural resources, promotion of environmental services and sustainable management of flora and fauna.The ARA operate with a territorial and ecosystem-centered approach.The ARA is led by a manager who oversee four Executive Directorates: the Executive Directorate of Environmental Management; the Executive Directorate of Conservation and Biological Diversity, the Executive Directorate of Forestry and Wildlife; and the Executive Directorate of Spatial Planning and Spatial Data.

The Executive Directorate of Conservation and Biological Diversity is the institution within Loreto’s ARA responsible for contributing to the sustainable development through the design and implementation of public policies, plans, programs, projects and strategies of management of the areas of regional conservation and the environmental services they provide, prioritizing their importance for the conservation and sustainable use of regional biological diversity.

Loreto has also prioritized the development and implementation of Regional Conservation Areas (ACRs for their acronym in Spanish) to address deforestation.The administration of the ACRs is framed by the guiding principles established in the Strategy for the Management of the Loreto ACRs, whichuses a co-management model to manage the biological, physical and social components of natural resources.It is through the principle ofCo-Management that synergies are established with the communities located in buffer zones of ACRs.Loreto recognizesthe important role of these communities in the conservation of the forests and natural resources of the ACRs and their communal territories. Currently in the Loreto Region there are four established Regional Conservation Areas, totaling an area of 2'199,885.09 hectares.

In the future, the challenge is to formulate and implement a holistic low-carbon development strategy that balances socioeconomic needs and forest conservation using a landscape approach.

Additional information can be found on the GCF Impact Platform.

Kenjy Bruno Teran Piña
Manger of Regional Planning, Budget & Territorial Planning
Dr. Jorge Luis Monasi Franco
Head of the Executive Office of International Cooperation
Elisban Ochoa Sosa
Population of State/Province [4]
1,039,372 3.4 % of National Population
Urban vs. Rural Population [5]
Urban 66.00 %
Rural 34.00 %
Ethnic Groups
Other 54,426
Kukama - kukamiria 50,000
Quechua 38,500
Chayahuita 20,000
Achuar 10,500
Awajun 8,000
State/Province GDP [6]
PEN 8,440,000
Annual Per Capita Income
PEN 7,144
Human Development Index [7]
GDP Breakdown
Other sectors 35.30 %
Public Administration and Defense 25.80 %
Commerce 19.50 %
Agriculture, Livestock, Hunting and Forestry 10.20 %
Oil and Mining 9.20 %
Main Exports [8]
Wood and papers, metalworking, iron and steel, fishing, agrochemicals
Forest Status (1)
Major Vegetation Types [9]
Humid low hills Forests 202,113 km²
Swamps 51,025 km²
Aguajales 29,299 km²
Humid Forest of Low Terraces 21,988 km²
Moist Forest of Mendric Plains 17,561 km²
Others 13,234 km²
Humid Mountain Forest 10,908 km²
Wet Forest of Terraces Stockings 9,439 km²
Humid High Hills Forests 8,193 km²
Humid Forest of High Terraces 5,003 km²
Forest Management
National Protected Areas 68,343 km²
Native titled communities 64,846 km²
Regional Conservation Areas 21,999 km²
Timber forest concessions 21,910 km²
Concessions for conservation 2,697 km²
Ecotourism concessions 329 km²
Other forest concessions 76 km²
Private Conservation Areas - ACP 10 km²
Deforestation Rates [10]
Drivers of Deforestation

There are no in-depth studies on the causes of deforestation in Loreto. The Strategic Environmental Study of the regional development plan notes that "deforestation originates due to various causes such as the exploitation of wood, the construction of roads and the conversion of forest areas to areas of agricultural activity " (DAR, 2015). The Loreto Sostenible 2021 study (Dourojeanni, 2013), also notes that "the highest rates of deforestation are concentrated in the two areas served by roads and around Iquitos." The first area is the one that corresponds to "area of high hills, which is crossed by the road that arrives to Yurimaguas from Tarapoto, the large plantations of oil palm established with use of machinery". The second area is the one influenced by "the construction of the Iquitos-Nauta highway, in terrains with sandy-quartz soils, which has led to the extension of the agricultural occupation of this area up to 20 km on each side (Dourojeanni, 2013). The report also explains that "important extensions have also been deforested in recent years for agricultural purposes in the provinces of Alto Amazonas, Ramón Castilla and Maynas." It is important to note also that Dourojeannu (2013) states that the main problem is not deforestation in Loreto, but rather degradation due to selective logging. Currently the extent of degradation in Loreto is difficult to measure.

(1) Due to different methodological approaches and base years, Forest Status data fields may differ slightly. Data sources for each field are listed below.
Geobosques 2016
Secretaría del Convenio sobre la Diversidad Biológica (